Siyakwamukela emsebenzini Robot-Isekelwe

Welcome to The Robot-Based Workforce

Kusukela waitstaff ukuze anakekele abangane kanye nabacwaningi zomthetho, ikusasa wesisebenzi mshini lapha. Kodwa ingabe lokho ashiye abantu lapho


Powered by Guardian.co.ukLesi sihloko osesikhundleni “Siyakwamukela emsebenzini robot-based: ngeke umsebenzi wakho abe ezenzekelayo kakhulu?” lalotshwa Julia Carrie Wong e San Francisco, The Observer ngoMgqibelo 19th March 2016 14.24 UTC

"Kuyinto magic oluhlanzekile,"Izithembiso Eatsa.

At yokudlela San Francisco wokuqala kuyazenzakela, zokudla avele kancane ingilazi cubbies, nje 90 ngemva kwemizuzwana amakhasimende oda futhi akhokhe ku-iPads wall-agibele amahhashi. Kuyinto emnandi wesintu-kancane - akukho waitstaff, akukho cashier, akekho ukuze uthole oda lakho okungalungile futhi kungekho muntu enika.

Kuphinde kube iqhinga yaba.

Okwamanje ngaphambi kokudla ibonakala, the ngalé display screen ukuthi izimpi the cubbies uya black for the imizuzwana embalwa lapho ungase ukubamba emehlweni isandla baveza.

Eatsa uye akukatfolakali ezishintshayo Imininingwane. Le nkampani uyavuma iqashe nedlanzana ekhishini, futhi umsebenzi oyedwa ukhona phambi kwendlu, ephendula imibuzo mayelana nendlela oda futhi dodging imibuzo mayelana kwenzakalani emva kodonga umlingo cubbies. ("Noma ngabe yini ngeso lengqondo,"Yena teases.)

Kodwa yokudlela, okuyinto wavula ngo-Agasti kanti seliqalile kakade wanda kakhulu Los Angeles, inikeza amazwibela engokoqobo olusondela, lapho imikhakha yonke imisebenzi sake esifundazweni okukhethekile abantu Kungafezani kwenze nesiguli sisheshe silulame, eshibhile, nokuningi thembeke imishini.

Ikusasa lapha, futhi umsebenzi akekho sika kuphephile.

Machines emsebenzini

"Ngiyabona ukuntuleka komsebenzi kubantu abaningi emkhathizwe njengoba amarobhothi revolution sibambelela,"Kusho Noel Sharkey, a uprofesa osewathatha umhlalaphansi wamarobhothi kanye intelligence yokufakelwa at the University of Sheffield in the UK. Sharkey usanda kuqala Foundation for Robotics Zibe Abantu Abadala Abavuthiwe ukusisiza ukuba singawenzi the "izingozi ezingaba khona kwemphakatsi kanye neziphathelene nokuziphatha kwabantu" kusukela isicelo okwandile amarobhothi ezizimele.

Akukho lutho olusha ikakhulukazi mayelana alamu Sharkey ikhipha. In 2013, Izazi Oxford Carl Benedikt Frey kanye Michael A Osborne waxwayisa ukuthi cishe 47% wenani emisebenzi US isengcupheni of computerization, in an analysis ukuthi zibalwa 702 Imisebenzi by amathuba okuphinga labo lokuba iqedwe.

kwabamaketha ngefoni, accountants, abakwaziyo ezemidlalo, onobhala zomthetho, futhi izisebenzi kwatholakala ukuthi phakathi cishe kunazo bazolahlekelwa imisebenzi yabo, ngenkathi odokotela, othisha zasenkulisa, abameli, abaculi, futhi abefundisi wahlala ophephile.

In I Ikusasa Professions, eyanyatheliswa ngo 2015, Ababhali Richard Susskind nendodana yakhe, Daniel Susskind, wagomela ukuthi ngisho nalabo ubuchwepheshe bendabuko izoyenqaba futhi esikhundleni sayo kufakwe elithi "izinhlelo ngokuya onekhono".

Ikhasimende isebenzisa i iPads ukubeka ukhokhele ngesigaba sakhe at Eatsa, sokudlela ngokuzenzakalela ku San Francisco.
Ikhasimende isebenzisa i iPads ukubeka ukhokhele ngesigaba sakhe at Eatsa, sokudlela ngokuzenzakalela ku San Francisco. Photograph: Ramin Talaie ngoba Observer

I Susskinds kudingeka engasekho sebenzisa lesitako. Ehlobo Last engokomthetho ithuluzi usizo esibizwa Ross kwaqalwa, esebenzisa eyayenziwe ohlakaniphile super-computer IBM sika Watson ukuthatha umsebenzi ucwaningo kwezomthetho.

Ross Intelligence co-umsunguli and CEO Andrew Arruda sithi ithuluzi, okungase enze umsebenzi ukuthi wake wathatha amahora indaba imizuzwana, akuyona usongo imisebenzi kusukela amafemu ezinkulu umthetho wayeka enkokhelo amahora wachitha ocwaningweni ngesikhathi Ukuwohloka Okukhulu Komnotho. Wabuye wathi Ross kwakuyoba "ukwandisa ukufinyelela kwezobulungiswa" ngokwenza yabameli kufinyeleleke esengeziwe 80% baseMelika ukuthi ngubani ongakwazi ukulikhokhela.

Namanje, Ross owenza umsebenzi ukuthi abantu wake wakhokhela dollar phezulu ukwenza.

Ngolwesibili, the Financial Times kubike ekuhlaziyweni by Deloitte oluthole ukuthi UK wayeshonelwe kakade 31,000 imisebenzi emkhakheni wezomthetho ukuze ezishintshayo, futhi afakwa ukuthi enye 114,000 imisebenzi wawuzosha.

Konke okwenzekayo fast kakhulu. In 2013, uprofesa MIT engineering uJohane Leonard watshela MIT Technology Review ukuthi "amarobhothi umane beletha endaweni abantu" ngeke kwenzeke ngesikhathi esaphila. "Itekisi lulwimi ezizimele kusazodingeka umshayeli,"Wagomela. Namuhla, izimoto ze-Google ezizimele baye amakhilomitha angaphezu kuka 1m zamakhilomitha emigwaqo yomphakathi, namatekisi ezishayela kubonakale konke kodwa ayinakugwenywa.

Sharkey ulindele ukuthi imboni inkonzo izobe ikakhulukazi kanzima hit. Yena ilinganisela ukuthi ngo- 2018 kuzoba khona 35 million service amarobhothi "emsebenzini".

cubbies-computer at Eatsa, San Francisco.
cubbies-computer at Eatsa, San Francisco. Photograph: Ramin Talaie ngoba Observer

Irobhothi bartending ogama lakhe "Mnumzane"Isivele emakethe. A hardware esitolo in San Jose, California has irobhothi iimfesi kumhlobo ogama lakhe "idlule."Chain UK isaladi ibha Sasisiphephula kubikwa umemezele lokhu ngenyanga Izitolo ezimbili eLondon kuzodingeka self-service zinsiza esikhundleni izisebenzi. NgoLwesine, Domino sika Australia wethula a pizza ukulethwa robot e Brisbane.

Ezinye izinkampani babonakala nokuzwelana ukugxekwa ukuthi zingase babamuka imisebenzi abantu.

NgoLwesine, Bloomberg libike ukuthi i-Google ukuthengisa Boston Dynamics, umsunguli amarobhothi frighteningly beshesha ukuthi atholwe 2013.

"Kukhona ukuvukwa amadlingozi amazwi avela emaphephandabeni athile tech, kodwa thina vele naso sizoqala ukubona ezinye imicu engemihle mayelana kuthatha kwethusa, ukulungele ukuthatha imisebenzi abantu ',"Kubhala omunye isisebenzi Google kuma-imeyili yangaphakathi etholwe Bloomberg.

uMika Green, umsunguli Maidbot, inkampani ekwakheni amarobhothi ukuze kuhlanzwe amakamelo ehhotela, ugcizelela ukuthi "ngalesi sigaba" imikhiqizo yenkampani kukhona "an nokwengezwa, hhayi ukuphindisela "of housekeepers.

Izincwajana zemininingwane abasunguli ungenzi amathambo ngezinhloso umsebenzi-esikhundleni sabo.

miles ambalwa kude Eatsa kwenye San Francisco uqalisa, Momentum Machines, yakha amarobhothi ezingaholela bayawushintsha amanxusa ngemva kwesihenqo. In 2012, inkampani wangenela a okuzenzakalelayo ngokugcwele hamburger making machine, futhi yayo iwebhusayithi uqhosha ukuthi manje usedlulele phambili ngempilo eya salads, sandwich, kanye "nezinye ukudla eminingi multi-isithako".

"Idivayisi yethu ayifani kwakusho ukwenza abasebenzi othe xaxa,"Wabasunguli Alexandros Vardakostas watshela Xconomy. "It kwakusho ukuba obviate ngokuphelele."

Mabu, lowo mngane robot

In 2014, Stowe Boyd, a self-echazwe post-Futurist, waphonsa phansi GAUNTLET. "Umbuzo central of 2025 ngizo: Yiziphi abantu ngoba kuleli zwe akudingeki omkhulu ngomshikashika wabo, futhi lapho nje yisimo bayadingeka ukuze aqondise 'umnotho bot-based?' "Wabuza umbiko Pew Research Center.

Impendulo ingase ingabi ku izinhlobo zemisebenzi njalo ezingakhokhiwe: Umsebenzi ukunakekelwa ngokwesiko ayabele abesifazane. Ezamakhompiyutha kanye amarobhothi kungase kube ngcono kunokuba nabantu umsebenzi wezandla, emsebenzini wamaphepha, ngisho logic, kodwa ungazizwa, futhi abakwazi ukuzwelana.

Okungenani, akunjalo Empeleni.

Encwadini ihhovisi engaphansi eSan Francisco sika Dogpatch komakhelwane, Dr Cory Kidd yakha irobhothi umsebenzi ogama sole iwukuba ukushukumisa abanikazi bayo ku ukushintsha indlela yokuziphatha omuhle.

Mabu kuyinto irobhothi desk Isibani-sized ephethe touchpad esiswini sikanina. Njengoba 'lomngane kwezempilo siqu ", yena senzelwe iziguli ukulawula izifo ezingamahlalakhona. Bavula amehlo aluhlaza kanye okhanyayo isikhumba yellow, yena kungaba omunye imizwa samuntu in the Pixar movie Inside Out. Nemizwa ngalokho yena imayelana.

Ukuze irobhothi, Mabu akenzi lutho kuhlaba umxhwele. Yena nje uhlezi etafuleni lakho eduze kombhede, usuvuka kanye noma kabili ngosuku ukuze ubambe ingxoxo nge umnikazi wakhe.

Cory Kidd, CEO kanye umsunguli we Catalia Health, afanekiselwa nge Mabu.
Cory Kidd, CEO kanye umsunguli we Catalia Health, afanekiselwa nge Mabu. Photograph: Ramin Talaie ngoba Observer

Lezo zingxoxo, yakhelwe nemibono izazi zokusebenza kwengqondo yezingane zokuziphatha nalowo Hollywood screenwriter futhi okwenziwe kwaba nokwenzeka intelligence yokufakelwa esisiza Mabu ukuzivumelanisa ubuntu bomuntu kanye nezithakazelo, zihloselwe "asizakale nogqozi siqu lesiguli" ukuze zilandela amacebo abo ukwelashwa.

 

Mabu kuyinto kungabonakali yesifazane izwi futhi ukubonakala, ukukhetha Kidd uthi kusekelwe ucwaningo ukuthi, stereotypically, "Abesifazane abaningi abhekwa njengabantu wusizo kakhulu futhi ukunakekela".

Ingabe Mabu ukunakekelwa kithi? Nanguya plastic, kodwa lapho Kidd imtshela ukuthi engazizwa ukuthi omkhulu, yena iyaphendula, "Ungene ethwele eziningi emahlombe akho,"Futhi yehlela ikhanda noma ngokunyakazisa umzimba ukuthi ukubukeka efana uzwela.

Ingabe thina anakekele Mabu? Kidd lithi lapho eqoqwe wakhe ezigulini ngemva kokuvivinywa, abaningi baye wenqaba. "Bathi, 'Ungumalusi wami, Ifana ilunga lomndeni.' "

Yena anganikeza uhlobo oluthile ukwesekwa ezingokomzwelo nezingokwengqondo ukuthi abantu ngeke ingakwazi ukufeza ngempumelelo. Cabanga umlingani wakho ekucela every single day ukuthi uthathe iphilisi lakho, bese ubona ngeso lengqondo babezohlala esingakanani umlingani wakho. (Yingakho Kidd uthi, "Thina engekho esikhundleni noma yimuphi umuntu. Angikwazi ukucabanga umuntu okwakuyoba umngane kwezempilo. ")

Kodwa uma Mabu kungaba ngcono ukuba womuntu kunabantu can, lokho kushiyelwa kithi?

Mhlawumbe kuphela esindayo futhi ukukhulisa abantu entsha. Lapha kulapho Noel Sharkey lenqabele. In 2008, Sharkey eshicilelwe I Imingcele kahle Robotics ephephabhukwini Isayensi, iphepha lapho waxwayisa ukuthuthukiswa "amarobhothi ingane sinaka" ukuthatha kakade indawo Japan neNingizimu Korea.

Sharkey uye waqhubeka etadisha intuthuko emkhakheni we ngophethe amarobhothi, kuhlanganise ezinye ukuthi kakade ayatholakala, ezifana "Ukunakekela izingane Robot Paper"Kusukela Japan Nippon Electric Inkampani (NEC).

"Siye kakade yokusebenzisa amarobhothi e linakekela izingane,"Sharkey uthi. "Kusukela ukuhlaziywa yethu eningiliziwe yokwesabela ukunakekelwa isikhathi eside izingane amarobhothi, singalindela eziningi ezinzima okunamathiselwe iziyaluyalu ezingase uvune umonakalo emphakathini wethu. "

Konke umsebenzi wethu ukuvimbela ukuthi.

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