Ososayensi baye basungula i "Atlas of the Brain"

Scientists Have Created an “Atlas of the Brain”

Ukusebenzisa ubuchopho imaging, ososayensi baye bakha ibalazwe ukubonisa indlela amagama neenhlathululo zawo ivezwa ezindaweni ezahlukene zobuchopho


Powered by Guardian.co.ukLesi sihloko osesikhundleni “Ososayensi bezinzwa ukudala 'Atlas' okubonisa indlela amagama ahlelwe ngendlela ubuchopho” lalotshwa Ian Isampula Science umhleli, ngoba theguardian.com ngoLwesithathu 27 April 2016 17.00 UTC

Ososayensi baye wadala an 'Atlas zobuchopho "owembula ukuthi anikeze incazelo yamagama ahlelwe ezindaweni ezahlukene isitho.

Like a Quilt colorful babeka phezu cortex, Atlas ekhombisa e rainbow anemibala indlela amagama athile nezindlela asetshenziswa imiqondo okuwo kungenziwa babeqoqana ndawonye Clumps ndaba white.

"Umgomo wethu kwaba ukwakha Atlas giant kubonisa ukuthi indlela okungesinye sezici letsite lulwimi amelwe ebuchosheni, kuleli cala engasho lutho, noma anikeze incazelo yamagama,"Kusho Jack lomkhumbi olamandla ongedluli, a kwezinzwa at the University of California, Berkeley.

Ayikho ubuchopho esifundeni olulodwa liphetheni izwi elilodwa noma umqondo. A single ubuchopho spot lihlotshaniswa linani lemagama ahlobene. Futhi igama ngalinye single ikhanyisa eziningi izindawo ezahlukene ubuchopho. Ndawonye bakha amanethiwekhi ukuthi bamele incazelo egameni ngalinye sisebenzisa: ukuphila nothando; ukufa kanye nokukhokha intela; Amafu, Florida and bra. Zonke ukhanyise amanethiwekhi ezabo.

Ososayensi baye wadala an interactive ibalazwe ezibonisa ukuthi yiziphi izindawo ubuchopho aphendule ezwa amazwi ahlukene.

Yachazwa "njengento tour de force" umcwaningi nalowo azisetshenziswa isifundo, Atlas ubonisa ukuthi imaging zanamuhla kungamshintsha ulwazi lwethu indlela ubuchopho oyenza ezinye imisebenzi yalo ebaluleke kakhulu. Kwentuthuko okunye, ubuchwepheshe, ingase ibe nethonya elinamandla endleleni imithi nakweminye imikhakha.

"Kungenzeka ukuthi le ndlela ebesingase sisetshenziselwe kuveta ulwazi ngalokho amazwi umuntu ozwa, Ukufundwa, noma mhlawumbe ngisho ukucabanga,"Kusho Alexander Huth, umlobi wokuqala cwaningo. Omunye ukusetshenziswa abangahle ubuyoba isiqophi semithombo ulimi ezingaholela uvumele abantu kubayekise isifo motor neurone noma ikhiyiwe-e syndrome ukuze akhulume ngekhompyutha.

Ukwakha i-Atlas, ososayensi baloba umsebenzi zabantu ubuchopho kuyilapho belalele izindaba efunda ku I Moth Radio Hour, US radio show. Babe kwafana imibhalo izindaba ne idatha yomsebenzi ubuchopho ithuba lokuba abonise ukuthi amaqembu kwamazwi ahlobene libangelwa izimpendulo kwemizwa ku 50,000 ukuze 80,000 amabala ipea elisemhlanganweni all over the cortex cerebral.

Huth esetshenziswa izindaba ezivela The Moth Radio Hour ngoba zimfushane futhi buphawuleka. The more ovusa izindaba, ngiqiniseka nakakhulu ososayensi kungaba ukuthi abantu iyahlolwa banake amazwi hhayi ukukhukhuleka off. Abantu abayisikhombisa walalela amahora amabili izindaba ngalinye. per umuntu, imali enjabulweni eyolethwa ukuzwa kalukhuni 25,000 amazwi- futhi ngaphezu 3,000 amagama ahlukene – njengoba ayelele isithwebuli.

I Atlas sikhombisa indlela amazwi A magama kanye namatemu ahlobene ukuzivocavoca izifunda efanayo wengqondo. Ngokwesibonelo, on the lwesokunxele zobuchopho, ngenhla endlebeni, ingenye ezifundeni encanyana emelela elithi "Isisulu". Isifunda efanayo aphendvule "Kushone", "Ababoshelwe", "Babulawa" futhi "yavuma". On ebuchosheni ngakwesokunene, eduze okhakhayini, LENA ngenye yezinto amabala ubuchopho ivuswe ngu imigomo umndeni: "Umfazi", "Umyeni", "Izingane", "Abazali".

Izwi ngayinye imelelwa ezingaphezu kweyodwa ibala ngoba amazwi avame ukuba libe nezincazelo eziningana. Omunye ingxenye yobuchopho, ngokwesibonelo, thembeke esabela igama elithi "phezulu", kanye amanye amagama achaza zokugqoka. Kodwa igama elithi "phezulu" oyenza nezinye izifunda eziningi. Omunye wabo aphendvule izinombolo futhi kukalwa, enye ukuze izakhiwo kanye nezindawo. Ososayensi baye wadala an iwebsite exhumana lapho umphakathi ungakwazi ukuhlola Atlas ubuchopho.

Okuphawuleka, the atlases ubuchopho ayefana for bonke abahlanganyeli, okusikisela ukuthi ubuchopho bazo ihlelwe incazelo yamagama ngendlela efanayo. Ososayensi kuphela bangahlola amadoda amahlanu nabesifazane ababili, Nokho. Zonke zimila izikhulumi isiZulu, futhi ababili balolu cwaningo eyanyatheliswa ngo Nature. Kungenzeka kakhulu ukuthi abantu bezizinda ezihlukene futhi namasiko kuyodingeka ahlukene semantic atlases ubuchopho.

Besebenzisa ngokudlala kwe-Atlas, Manje abacwaningi bakhipha ndawonye amanethiwekhi ubuchopho ukuthi bamele imiqondo ukushayelwa ezahlukene, izinombolo okubulala inkolo. "Umqondo okubulala umelelwe a lot in the ebuchosheni,"Lomkhumbi olamandla ongedluli kusho.

Ukusebenzisa hola efanayo idatha, lelicembu useqale umsebenzi on atlases omusha ezibonisa indlela ubuchopho liphetheni ulwazi kwamanye telulwimi, kusukela phonemes kuya e-syntax. A Atlas ubuchopho lelandzisako nesakhiwo uye wafakazela kude kangaka esiyivelakancane, Nokho. "Njalo lapho beveza iqoqo izici lelandzisako, silahle watshela akuzona isethi ilungelo izici lelandzisako,"Kusho lomkhumbi olamandla ongedluli.

Uri Hasson, a kwezinzwa at Princeton University, wancoma umsebenzi. Ngokungafani izifundo eziningi ukuthi wabuka umsebenzi ubuchopho lapho izwi elingalodwa noma umusho okwakhulunywa, Ithimba lomkhumbi olamandla ongedluli BakaJehova base ukukhanya alithulula indlela ubuchopho wasebenza lwesigameko wangempela, uthe. Isinyathelo esilandelayo, uthe, kwaba ukudala semantic Atlas lophelele eqondile ebuchosheni. Ekugcineni, Hasson uyakukholwa sizokwazi kabusha amazwi umuntu acabanga umsebenzi wabo ebuchosheni. Nemithelela zesimilo kukhona ezinkulukazi. One more Ukusetshenziswa kungavamile ukuba ingozi bazowubona umsebenzi zobuchopho ezisetshenziswa ukuhlola bonyana imiyalezo ephathelene nezombusazwe ziye ngempumelelo wakhuluma ku umphakathi. "Kukhona kunemithelela eminingi kangaka, futhi thina ngokulambisa othinta ebusweni,"Uthe.

Lorraine Tyler, a kwezinzwa engqondweni yethu kanye neNhloko Centre for Speech, Ulimi Nobuchopho eCambridge University wathi ucwaningo kwaba "tour de force in nobukhulu bayo nezindlela". Kodwa Atlas zobuchopho injalo manje angazizwa wayohlasela umehluko esihle ngezwi zincazelo. Thatha igama elithi "etafuleni". Kungaba ilungu amaqembu amaningi ahlukene, Tyler uthi. "Kungaba okuya ngasethunjini off, izinto ezenziwe ngokhuni, izinto zinzima, ngezinto eziphathelene nemilenze emine, non-Animate lezinto, njalo njalo. Lolu hlobo ukwaziswa okuningiliziwe semantic eyenza amazwi ukuze isetshenziswe kalula ulahleke analysis,"Wathi. "Nakuba lokhu kucwaninga endleleni-breaking in nobukhulu bayo, kusekuningi okufanele sikufunde mayelana nendlela engasho lutho emelelwa ebuchosheni. "

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