Indlela Amehlo akho akhaphele imicabango yakho

How your eyes betray your thoughts

 

Powered by Guardian.co.ukLesi sihloko osesikhundleni “Indlela Amehlo akho akhaphele imicabango yakho” lalotshwa Mo Costandi, ngoba theguardian.com ngoLwesibili 2nd June 2015 09.00 UTC

Ngokusho isisho sasendulo, amehlo kukhona amafasitela singene umphefumulo, okwembula nemizwelo ejulile singase ngenye ufuna ukufihla. Nakuba isayensi yanamuhla okuvimbela ukhona umphefumulo, awusebenzi asikisela ukuthi kukhona inhlamvu iqiniso kuleli zwi: kuvela amehlo nje kuphela kubonise ukuthi kwenzekani engqondweni kodwa esingase sithonye indlela esisingatha ukukhumbula izinto bese batsatsa tincumo ngekutakhela.

Amehlo ethu njalo ezihamba, futhi nakuba ezinye zalezo iminyakazo bangaphansi control abaqaphela, abaningi babo zenzeka unganakile. Lapho sifunda, ngokwesibonelo, senza uchungechunge iso ukunyakaza esheshayo kakhulu esibizwa saccades ukuthi fixate ngokushesha kwi izwi ngemva kwenye. Lapho singena ekamelweni, senza emikhulu saccades zishanela njengoba sibheke ngalé azungeze. Bese kuba khona ezincane, iso ukunyakaza okungalindelekile senza njengoba sihamba, bavale isikhala ukunyakaza zekhanda lethu nokusimamisa umbono wethu ngomhlaba. Futhi, kunjalo, amehlo ethu ngehubo azungeze phakathi 'iso ukunyakaza ngokushesha' (REM) isigaba ukulala.

BBC Future

Yini manje kucaca ukuthi abanye iso ukunyakaza yethu empeleni kungase kwembule inqubo yethu yokucabanga.

Ucwaningo eyanyatheliswa ngonyaka odlule libonisa ukuthi Umfundi Ukuvuleka komlomo ixhunyaniswe degree of ukungaqiniseki ngesikhathi ekuthathweni: uma umuntu abaqiniseki ukuthi ngesinqumo sabo, abazizwa ngayo ukuqhanyelwa kuqiniswa, elibangela abafundi uvuleke. Lolu shintsho esweni kungase kwembule nokuthi lokho Ungumenzi wezinqumo ebekazokutjho: elinye iqembu labacwaningi, ngokwesibonelo, yathola ukuthi ukubukela i-Ukuvuleka komlomo wenza kunendlela ukubikezela lapho umuntu baqaphe esetshenziswa ethi 'cha' esezakuvula ukwenza isinqumo olukhohlisayo sithi 'yebo'.

Ukubuka Amehlo kungasiza ngisho nokubikezela ukuthi inombolo yiphi umuntu anakho engqondweni. Tobias Loetscher nozakwabo e-University of Zurich waqoqa 12 amavolontiya zilandelwa iso ukunyakaza kwabo ngesikhathi bona reeled off uhlu 40 izinombolo.

Bathola ukuthi isiqondiso futhi ubukhulu iso ukuhamba kwababambiqhaza labikezela ngokunembile ukuthi ngabe inombolo sebezoba ukusho yayinkulu noma umncane kakhulu kunalokho lowo odlule - futhi by malini. amehlo ngasinye sokuzithandela sika wawugxilisa phezulu kuya ngakwesokudla nje ngaphambi Bathi a enomborweni ekulu, phansi ngakwesobunxele ngaphambi esincane. I sisikhulu shift kusukela kolunye uhlangothi kuya kolunye, sikhulu umehluko emkhatsini wetinombolo.

Lokhu kusikisela ukuthi thina ngandlela-thile uxhumanise inombolo abstract izethulo nobuchopho ukunyakaza in space. Kodwa lolu cwaningo lingasitsheli okuza kuqala: kungakhathaliseki bacabange inombolo ethile ebangela lolu shintsho esimweni esweni, noma ngabe isikhundla iso unomthelela umsebenzi ethu engqondo. In 2013, Abacwaningi e Sweden eshicilelwe ubufakazi bokuthi kungcono lakamuva kungase kube emsebenzini: iso ukunyakaza may empeleni lula inkumbulo ukubuyisa.

They waqoqa 24 abafundi futhi wacela yilowo nalowo ukuba bahlolisise uchungechunge lezinto wabonisa kubo kwelinye ekhoneni kwe-computer. Abahlanganyeli zabe abatshelwa ukuba balalele uchungechunge izitatimende mayelana ezinye izinto babebonile, ezifana "Imoto ezibhekene ngakwesokhohlo" futhi wacela ukuba akhombise ngokushesha ngangokunokwenzeka uma ngayinye sasingaphansi ngokuthi iqiniso noma amanga. Abanye ababambiqhaza bavunyelwa ukuba amehlo abo zululeka ngokukhululekile; abanye acelwa ukuba silungise amehlo abo esiphambanweni esikhungweni kwesikrini, noma ekhoneni lapho intfo ayebonakele, ngokwesibonelo.

Abacwaningi bathola ukuthi labo bavunyelwa ukuba amehlo abo angesabi phakathi khumbula eyenziwa kangcono kakhulu ukwedlula labo njó esiphambanweni. Ngokuthakazelisayo, Nokho, abahlanganyeli ababetshelwe ukuba silungise amehlo abo ekhoneni kwesikrini lapho tintfo ayebonakele ngaphambili eyenziwa ngcono kunalabo abababusayo watshelwa ukuba silungise amehlo abo kwenye ekhoneni. Lokhu kusikisela ukuthi eduze kakhudlwana kwababambiqhaza iso ukunyakaza ngesikhathi inani ukuyiqonda nokuyikhumbula kwakuhambisana nalabo ezenzeka phakathi ukubuyisa ulwazi, zizuza ngokwengeziwe Sebeselitsheni ekhumbula izinjongo. Mhlawumbe kungenxa yokuthi iso ukunyakaza usisize sikhumbule ubudlelwano lwezendawo phakathi tintfo letikhona endzaweni lebakuyo ngesikhathi ukuyiqonda nokuyikhumbula.

Lezi izimo iso singenzeka ngokungazi. "Lapho abantu babuka izigcawu baye nato ngembi, amehlo abo njalo badonsekela ulwazi baye azibonile, ngisho nalapho abanakho inkumbulo abazi it,"kusho Roger Johansson, wezengqondo at Lund University owayehola kulolu cwaningo.

Ukubuka iso ukunyakaza lungasetshenziswa ukuze cathulisa izinqumo zabantu. Ucwaningo oluthile lwamuva nje wabonisa - mhlawumbe worryingly - uma lelo liso lakho Umkhondo osheshayo ungasetshenziswa kudlalwe ukuze ukuthonya izinqumo zokuziphatha sithatha.

Abacwaningi bacela abahlanganyeli imibuto lelukhuni zokuziphatha ezifana "Can ukubulala naphakade ukulungisiswa?"Futhi wabe esebonisa, kuyi-computer, izimpendulo ehlukile ("Ngezinye izikhathi ithetheleleka" noma "akakaze ecatshangisisiwe"). By ethungatha kwababambiqhaza iso ukunyakaza, nokususa ezimbili izinketho impendulo ngokushesha emva umhlanganyeli ehlale isamba esithile ukugqolozela omunye ezimbili okukhethwa kukho, abacwaningi bathola ukuthi babekwazi cathulisa the ababambiqhaza ukunikeza ukuthi option ikakhulukazi njengoba impendulo yabo.

"Asizange siye cha epha them phi ukwaziswa okwengeziwe,"Kusho kwezinzwa Daniel Richardson University College London, umbhali senior zokutadisha. "Thina ukumane walinda yabo ekutsatseni tincumo izinqubo ukwenzeka futhi iphazanyiswe kubo nakanye phuzu. We enza them ukushintsha izingqondo zabo nje ngokulawula lapho benza isinqumo. "

Richardson unezela ukuthi abadayisi yimpumelelo bangase babe ngezinga elithile ukuze siqonde le, futhi ulisebenzise ukuze kube sikhuthazo khudlwana namaklayenti. "Sicabanga abantu ngezinkulumo ezithonyayo njengoba nabakhuluma kuhle, kodwa mhlawumbe uqamba futhi sigcina izinqumo," uthena. "Mhlawumbe abadayisi enhle ngokwezinga elithile bangase amabala mzuzu ngqo ubhekene kokuntengantenga towards a choice ethile, bese ukukunikeza isaphulelo noma ukushintsha kwephimbo akunawo yabo. "

I ubiquity iso-ngomkhondo izinhlelo zokusebenza ze-Smartphones kanye namanye amadivayisi ngesandla kuphakamisa ukuthi kungenzeka ukuma izinqumo zabantu ukude. "Uma ubhekene nithenga online, bangamenze noma ukuchema kuzo isinqumo sakho ngokunikela lokuthumela free okwamanje ubuka umkhiqizo othize. "

Ngakho, iso kungaba kokubili kubonise nemisebenzi nethonya ephakeme sengqondo esinjalo njengoba inkumbulo futhi ekuthathweni, futhi akhaphele imicabango yethu, izinkolelo, kanye nezifiso. Lolu lwazi ungasinika izindlela zokwenza ngcono imisebenzi yethu engokwengqondo - kodwa ishiya sibe sengozini zokukhwabanisa ezicashile abanye abantu.

"Amehlo zinjengethonsi window zibe ukucabanga kwethu, futhi thina vele awukuqondi kanjani ulwazi okuningi avuzayo kuzo,"Kusho Richardson. "Bathi kungase sembula ukuthi umuntu ongafuna ukucindezela, ezifana kuyincazelo yegama noma ukuchema kuzo kwezinhlanga. "

"Ngiyabona iso-ngomkhondo izinhlelo zokusebenza zisetshenziselwa, uthi, technologies ongisekelayo ukuthi uzodlala yini umsebenzi odinga bese ukusiza,"Uyanezela, "Kodwa uma ushiywa on sonke isikhathi ebesingase sisetshenziselwe ukulandelela zonke izinhlobo ezinye izinto. Lokhu kwakuyonikeza ulwazi acebile kakhulu, and raises the possibility of unwittingly sharing our thoughts with others.”

This is an edited version of a feature I wrote for BBC.com/Future, a website covering science, health and technology.

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