Indlela ikoloni Mars

How to colonize Mars

 

Powered by Guardian.co.ukLesi sihloko osesikhundleni “Indlela ikoloni Mars” lalotshwa Sara Bruhns noJakobe Haqq-Misra, ngoba theguardian.com ngoLwesine 5 November 2015 10.40 UTC

NASA ukhiphe umbiko oqukethe amapulani aningiliziwe a mission womuntu ukuze Mars. Lokhu bekulokhu kuwumgomo eside ukuma for NASA kanti umbiko wabo uchaza nezinselele Mars ukuhlola ngezigaba ezintathu. Okokuqala, 'Earth Reliant', isigaba ligxila ocwaningweni ababesemkhunjini International Space Station. Isigaba The 'esifungweni Ground' ubeka abantu shí isikhala ucwaningo, ngesikhathi esifanayo ezinsukwini ezimbalwa ukusuka eMhlabeni. Isigaba The 'Earth Independent' ucedzela plan ngokuthola abantu ebusweni Mars.

NASA akuyona inhlangano kuphela ulungiselela ukuthumela abantu ukuba le planethi ebomvu. SpaceX, Dennis Tito Inspiration Mars Foundation, futhi Mars One babe yonke eveza inhloso ukuvakashela futhi kwezinye izimo ngisho ikoloni Mars.

Ngaphambi yimuphi izizwe noma izinhlangano uqale ukuhlola kanye nokusungula wezokuHlaliswa, ambiguities emthethweni international mayelana neyezobuchwepheshe zokuhlala kumele kucaciswe futhi zixazululwe. Ikhono izindleko, zezimali kanye nezombusazwe, indiva lo empikiswaneni yobukhosi in space ziphakeme kakhulu ukuvumela lezi izinhlelo mission kakhulu athuthukise.

Umgomo wamanje neyezobuchwepheshe ngokuyinhloko kuchazwa by the Outer Space Treaty, ezibhalwe 1967. Lokhu Treaty amabhara abasayinile yayo kusukela kokufaka izikhali zembubhiso in space, kukhawula ukusetshenziswa isikhala ukuze izinjongo zokuthula, okunqanda isizwe esivela abathi bananoma ezweni kunoma iyiphi imizimba yasezulwini (eyaziwa ngokuthi 'non-ukwabiwa isimiso'), futhi uyagomela ukuthi isikhala 'esifundazweni sonke isintu'.

Labhalwa Outer Space Treaty phambi abantu lawela phezu Moon, njengoba iMpi Yomshoshaphansi okwakwanda aboshelwe, futhi kanjalo ayiqondakali ifakwe ku uqondise neyezobuchwepheshe. Imishwana Iningi le Treaty kukhona ngokungangabazeki ezidingekayo, ezifana ukuvinjelwa izikhali zembubhiso, futhi ukusetshenziswa isikhala ngenhloso kuphela enokuthula. Nokho, izithibelo ngokuphelele ngalokho okushiwo sovereign by isimiso non-ukwabiwa kungaholela ukungqubuzana esizayo.

Nakuba imininingwane ephelele yimuphi ohambweni womuntu ezihlongozwayo Mars (ukuthi yomphakathi namkha yangeqadi) kukhona namanje ngaphansi ukuthuthukiswa, phezu kwesisekelo eyisisekelo amakoloni, njengoba kuqhathaniswa nje ukufuna, kubangela ukukhathazeka. Umgomo non-ukwabiwa Outer Space Treaty uvimbela 'ukwabiwa by claim kobukhosi, esebenzisa ukusetshenziswa noma umsebenzi, noma nganoma iyiphi enye indlela '. Lokhu kusikisela ukuthi isenzo ikoloni ngokwayo okungqubuzanayo Treaty. Indlela lezi zinhlangano uhlose bayokwakha ngaphandle azisholo ubukhosi is an issue kungalungiswa futhi eyayibaluleke kakhulu ukuze kunqunywe ngaphambi kokufika on Mars.

Enye indlela bezikhali ekuxazululeni lokhu ngokugxila izicelo kwezomnotho imithombo Mars kunokuba izwe ngokwalo. Amaqembu zikahulumeni nezizimele okungenzeka umhlaba Mars kanye ukusungula base lapho umthetho yezwe labo, kuyosebenza bonke abakhileyo nezivakashi-elifana zomthetho ezilawula International Space Station ekhona. Babekwazi ukusungula icebo elilinganiselwe ezweni lapho bengase bathi okukhethekile amalungelo kwezomnotho kanye nokuziphatha nesayensi. Nokho, i 'zone okukhethekile kwezomnotho' enjalo ayeyohlala zokugomela ebukhosini. A Mars umhlali kunoma iyiphi ikoloni kungase kudlule angene ala maqembu, futhi babekwazi ngisho akha another base eyabo. Nokho, yonke imithombo extractable eziqukethwe ngaphakathi zone kukhona ilungelo okukhethekile ummangali original. Lesi siphakamiso inikeza indlela ukwanelisa imigomo resource-kubutsela kwabaningi zamanje Mars ohambweni, imvume amapulani ikoloni ukuba uqhubeke, futhi ukufeza izidingo of the Outer Space Treaty.

Abasekela Iningi Mars ikoloni ohambweni uphikise yisiphi msebenzi kuthanda itjhuguluko engekhe yalungiseka bangcolise imvelo Mars, ungalimazi ucwaningo lwesayensi kanye yonakalise ubuhle bemvelo planethi. Ukuze silwe lezi izinkathazo, a amaplanethi park inqubo efana National Park uhlelo Womhlaba babengase isungulwe. Amapaki yemihlaba babeyobonakala futhi kulawulwa ngokusho uvo ososayensi Earth emhlabeni wonke-kulandela model ukuvumelana kanye imizila Ucwaningo NASA decadal yokukhetha isikhala ohambweni. Abanye amapaki kungase kube evulekile kuphela eminakweni isayensi, kanti abanye kungase kube Leligama luyingxenye yobuhle ukulondoloza imvelo Mars 'yemvelo.

Ukuvumelana phezu a plan like lokhu wayengenza ngendlela enokuthula phambili. Nokho, kuyohlale izingxabano ezincane phakathi bamakoloni, ikakhulukazi uma isimiso non-ukwabiwa ukuba ubambe kanye ikoloni, njengoba akukho sizwe noma inhlangano uzokwazi sizithibe ngokuphelele okukhethekile zone zabo zezomnotho. A yesikhashana Tribunal uhlelo kungaba indlela enhle yokuxazulula izingxabano phakathi izifiki on Mars ngaphandle ezihilela Court of Justice International Emhlabeni. Uma amakoloni amabili zingqubuzane nomunye, icala labo lingase lizwakale futhi ukuxazululwa yinkantolo ehlanganisa abamele kwamanye amakoloni. Lokhu imodeli ivumela izithakazelo colonial ukuba ezazigcinwe ekuxazululweni kuphela phakathi bamakoloni.

Loluhlelo lechazwe ngenhla indlela okungenzeka phambili. Nokho, kubalulekile ukuze izizwe kanye nezinhlangano ukungena inkhulumomphendvulwano mayelana nendlela uqhubeke. Izinhlelo ekhona bayokwakha Mars Abakaqhamuki iyobhekana kanjani kanye nempikiswano yobukhosi bendawo abathi bananoma. Kodwa iyiphi inhlangano engaphansi kwe-party isizwe kuze Outer Space Treaty kuyodingeka ukuba bathobele stipulations iSivumelwano sika. Mhlawumbe ikhambi iwukuba ahlolisise iSivumelwano, ikakhulukazi isimiso non-ukwabiwa, futhi anqume uma lokhu mfuneko namanje zisasebenza namuhla. Noma mhlawumbe ikhambi ukuchibiyela iSivumelwano ngokucacile kunqunywe indlela zokuhlala. Isimo samanje izindaba kuyinto edidayo kakhulu, futhi ezingqubuzana kubonakala ezingenakugwenywa ngaphandle kombuso ikoloni okunqunyiwe ngaphambi abantu bokuqala ufika Mars.

Sara Bruhns wafunda physics kanye isayensi yezinkanyezi at the University of Virginia. Yena esaphenya kobukhosi on Mars kanye Jacob Haqq-Misra (haqqmisra) ngokusebenzisa Young Scientist Program at the Blue Marble Space Institute of Science. Imibono lapha kukhona yedwa abalobi '.

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