Five Mars ezitholwe aguqula ukuqonda kwethu le planethi ebomvu

Five Mars discoveries that transformed our understanding of the red planet

 

Powered by Guardian.co.ukLesi sihloko osesikhundleni “Five Mars ezitholwe aguqula ukuqonda kwethu le planethi ebomvu” lalotshwa Alan Yuhas e New York, ngoba theguardian.com ngoLwesine 5 November 2015 21.15 UTC

With a rover trundling phezu kwenhlabathi red, a diving mkhathi ngokusebenzisa emkhathini futhi amaqembu emsebenzini nxazonke Zomhlaba, Mars akakadeli intambo ye izimfihlo Nasa ngonyaka odlule. Nazi ezinye yezinto ezinkulu 2015.

Amanzi Liquid on Mars

Kwafunwa amashumi eminyaka, ubufakazi amanzi liquid on Mars ngokoqobo bephume iplanethi July, ligeleza zigodi futhi wentaba izindonga phezu isizini ihlobo. Ithimba Nasa wathola nosawoti amanzi amaningi, a gun ukubhema amanzi liquid, ezindaweni ezine lapho amabala amnyama trickled phansi sezwe Mars.

Nasa not yet akamazi umthombo kolwandle ekwehleni ukugeleza, okungase Sukani ice komhlaba noma aquifers, noma cindezela out of the umkhathi. Ohambweni Esidlule ziye zathola Amacebo amanzi, kuhlanganise izithombe lokho okungabonakala imifula encane ngisho namanzi ethela phansi gullies, kodwa ukutholakala sasehlobo kwaqala yabizwa ngokuthi wokuqala ukuqinisekisile ubufakazi awuketshezi ezihambisana nokuphila.

Sekuyisikhathi eside abacwaningi aphethwe ukuthi amanzi liquid kuyinto esiyinhloko ukuphila - mantra Nasa ngo ekufuneni kuba "ukulandela amanzi" - kodwa ososayensi manje ixakeke kanjani ukuba aphenye imifula. Le nqola Ilukuluku ukuthi uye ezobhekwa Mars iminyaka emithathu akuyona oyinyumba, futhi babekwazi zonakalisa izindawo ezimanzi njalo nezimbungulu yasemhlabeni ukuthi wanamathela kuma-mkhathi ngokusebenzisa yonke. Le nqola kungase aphenye kude, nge laser ukuthi ngabe ukukala streaks, noma kwakungase engozini sisondela lokukha up ezinye udaka.

An emkhathini wamkhumula umoya ukusuka elangeni

NgoLwesine, Nasa umemezele uchungechunge okutholakele mayelana umkhathi Mars ' ukuthi bangasiza axazulule impicabadala okwenzeka Mars, lapho izigidigidi zeminyaka edlule kwaba ezimanzi, umhlaba obufudumele isimo 100 Izikhathi mkhulu. Namuhla Mars lomile, Washonela emathafeni abandayo ngaziphonsa inqwaba bemisebe - izwe ngaphandle yamandla kazibuthe amakhulu ezungeze Earth kuyakuvikela kusukela Ukuqhuma elangeni.

Okutholakele kusukela Maven mkhathi NASA, lapho kwafinyelela Mars ukuwa last ukuba iphenye nomkhathi mncane, ziyasiza ukuxazulula ukuthi imfihlakalo. Mission ososayensi bathola ukuthi iziphepho solar, lapho kuqhuma energy and uzibuthe kwangaphandle, ukuhlubula kude izinhlayiya emkhathini we-Mars ngezinga Amazing.

"Like nokweba zemali ezimbalwa imali ukubhalisa nsuku zonke, ukulahlekelwa kuba eziphawulekayo ngokuhamba kwesikhathi,"Kusho uBruce Jakosky, Umphenyi uthishanhloko Maven sika. Iziphepho Solar ezazivamile more and okukhulu ekuqaleni emlandweni yesimiso sonozungezilanga sika, okusho ukuthi kungenzeka izenzakalo elangeni kwadingeka nemiphumela ezinkulu amanzi kanye isimo Mars.

Inhloso lalizingalo ukubunjwa umkhathi Mars 'ngokokuqala ngqa kusukela ohambweni Viking 40 iminyaka edlule, futhi bathola imali okuyimfihlakalo uthuli emoyeni ngenhla planethi. Abacwaningi basikisela kungaba uthuli interplanetary - okusanhlamvu cosmic ashiywe lezinkanyezi ezinomsila futhi Asteroids edabula uhlelo solar.

Amachibi Ancient

Ngo-Okthoba, Ososayensi be-NASA bathola ubufakazi amachibi lwalungathatha kuze 10,000 Eminyakeni - kungenzeka isikhathi eside ngokwanele ukuze ukuphila ukuthuthukisa in a landscape exhaphozini of imifula angashoni futhi deltas. Ukuhlolwa lwenzika wabonisa ososayensi ukuthi amanzi ozingelezele, ithwele amatshe nesihlabathi phansi omkhulu Gale wentaba. In the isikhungo emgodini umi entabeni esikhulu okuthiwa iNtaba Sharp, uqobo ekuqongeleleni ezintathu-engamakhilomitha angu-lwenzika izingqimba.

Amanzi Underground

Ngo April, Le nqola Ilukuluku bathola ubufakazi amanzi liquid okujulile Mars, okushisa ezilotshwe wentaba Gale ukuthi ababe sikahle brine liquid. Okutholakele wasikisela ukuthi enhlabathini ye-Mars uba manzi ngamanzi ukuthi bangahlala sibonga uketshezi usawoti, calcium perchlorate, lapho uzigcina fluid phansi mayelana -70C.

Auroras

Ososayensi Maven futhi bathola ukuthi umoya solar kudala okulingana izibani enyakatho yonkana swaths enkulukazi Mars, odalwe high-energy izinhlayiya okuthakazelisayo isimo olungalawuliwe lungadala kazibuthe. Abantu kwakuthiwa ukubona auroras Mars njengoba red, imibala blue and green on the spectrum ebonakalayo, kodwa Nasa akusho kodwa ukuthi yini izibani lingase libukeke, kusukela Rovers yayo bantula imishini ukubabona.

The auroras futhi basikisela ukuthi iningi Mars Lishaywa yimimoya solar, uboleka ubufakazi umqondo wokuthi izenzakalo solar zaba nomthelela ekubeni abantu ozungeze wonke emhlabeni. Abanye kazibuthe bahlale ezigabeni uqweqwe ehlakazekile emhlabeni, kodwa iplanethi awunazo isihlangu global ukuthi yake yaba.

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