古希腊人首先要说明一点. 莎士比亚提出的前景太. 不过，拜伦勋爵是, 也许, 最直接的他们全部: “我们的手艺都疯了,“他告诉布莱伯爵夫人, 铸造了戒心了他的同胞诗人.
折磨艺术家的概念是一个顽固的米姆. 创造力, 它指出, 是由艺术家在他们最黑暗的时刻搏斗恶魔推波助澜. 这个想法是天马行空许多科学家. 但一项最新研究宣称该链接可毕竟有根有据, 并写进我们的DNA的分子扭曲.
在周一发表的一项大型研究, 科学家在冰岛报告说提高双相情感障碍和精神分裂症的危险遗传因素被发现往往在人们的创意行业. 画家, 音乐家, 作家和舞者, 平均, 25% 更容易携带的基因变异不是专业科学家判断为少素材, 其中是农民, 体力劳动者和销售人员.
科学家成功绘制出的遗传和医疗信息 86,000 冰岛人发现一倍精神分裂症的平均风险的遗传变异, 并通过了三分之一以上提出的躁郁症的风险. 当他们了解了如何共同这些变种是国家艺术的社会成员, 他们发现了一个 17% 加强与非会员相比，.
研究人员还检查了他们的发现在荷兰和瑞典举行大型医疗数据库. 在这些当中 35,000 人, 那些被认为有创意 (由专业或通过回答问卷调查) 几乎 25% 更容易携带的心理障碍变种.
斯蒂芬森认为，基因的分数增加精神分裂症和双相情感障碍的风险. 这些可能会改变许多人认为的途径, 但在大多数人什么都不做是非常有害的. 但对于 1% 人口, 遗传因素, 生活经验和其他影响能达到高潮的问题, 和精神病的诊断.
“经常, 当人们正在创造新的东西, 他们最终的理智和疯狂之间的跨界,“斯特凡松说. “我认为这些结果支持了疯狂的天才的旧观念. 创意是给了我们一个莫扎特质量, 过独身生活, 梵高. 这是一个品质就是对我们的社会非常重要. 但它是在一个危险的个体, 和 1% 人口付出的代价吧。“
斯蒂芬森承认，他的研究发现，遗传变异之间的精神疾病和创造力只有一个薄弱环节. 而正是这一点，其他科学家拿起. 即提高心理问题的风险的遗传因素解释只有约 0.25% of the variation in peoples’ artistic ability, 研究发现. David Cutler, a geneticist at Emory University in Atlanta, puts that number in perspective: “If the distance between me, the least artistic person you are going to meet, and an actual artist is one mile, these variants appear to collectively explain 13 feet of the distance,“他说，.
Most of the artist’s creative flair, 然后, is down to different genetic factors, or to other influences altogether, such as life experiences, that set them on their creative journey.
For Stefansson, even a small overlap between the biology of mental illness and creativity is fascinating. “It means that a lot of the good things we get in life, through creativity, come at a price. It tells me that when it comes to our biology, we have to understand that everything is in some way good and in some way bad,“他说，.
但 Albert Rothenberg, professor of psychiatry at Harvard University is not convinced. He believes that there is no good evidence for a link between mental illness and creativity. “It’s the romantic notion of the 19th century, that the artist is the struggler, aberrant from society, and wrestling with inner demons,“他说，. “But take Van Gogh. He just happened to be mentally ill as well as creative. 对我来说, the reverse is more interesting: creative people are generally not mentally ill, but they use thought processes that are of course creative and different.”
If Van Gogh’s illness was a blessing, the artist certainly failed to see it that way. In one of his last letters, he voiced his dismay at the disorder he fought for so much of his life: “哦, if I could have worked without this accursed disease – what things I might have done.”
在 2014, Rothernberg published a book, “Flight of Wonder: an investigation of scientific creativity”, in which he interviewed 45 science Nobel laureates about their creative strategies. He found no evidence of mental illness in any of them. He suspects that studies which find links between creativity and mental illness might be picking up on something rather different.
“The problem is that the criteria for being creative is never anything very creative. Belonging to an artistic society, or working in art or literature, does not prove a person is creative. But the fact is that many people who have mental illness do try to work in jobs that have to do with art and literature, not because they are good at it, but because they’re attracted to it. And that can skew the data,“他说，. “Nearly all mental hospitals use art therapy, and so when patients come out, many are attracted to artistic positions and artistic pursuits.”
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