如何殖民火星

How to colonize Mars

 

技術Guardian.co.uk這篇文章題為 “如何殖民火星” 是由莎拉BRUHNS雅各Haqq,米斯拉, 對於theguardian.com週四11月5日 2015 10.40 世界標準時間

美國航空航天局已經發布 載有詳細計劃為人類登陸火星的報告. This has been a long-standing goal for NASA and their report outlines the challenges of Mars exploration in three stages. 第一, ‘Earth Reliant’, stage focuses on research aboard the 國際空間站. The ‘Proving Ground’ stage puts humans deeper into space for research, while remaining a few days from Earth. The ‘Earth Independent’ stage completes the plan by getting humans to the surface of Mars.

NASA is not the only organization preparing to send humans to the red planet. SpaceX公司, Dennis Tito’s Inspiration Mars Foundation, 和 火星一號 都表達了目的訪問,在某些情況下,甚至殖民火星.

在任何國家或組織開始探索和建立定居點, 關於太空探索和解決模糊性的國際法律應該予以澄清和解決. 潛在的成本, 金融和政治, 忽略了這個問題主權空間的太高,讓這些任務計劃更進一步發展.

目前太空探索政策是由主要定義 外層空間條約, 寫在 1967. This Treaty bars its signatories from installing weapons of mass destruction in space, limits the use of space to peaceful purposes, prohibits any nation from claiming land on any celestial bodies (known as the ‘non-appropriation principle’), and asserts that space is ‘the province of all mankind’.

The Outer Space Treaty was written before humans landed on the Moon, as Cold War tensions mounted, and so is poorly equipped to direct the course of space exploration. Many clauses of this Treaty are undoubtedly necessary, 如大規模殺傷性武器的禁令, 並利用空間僅用於和平目的. 然而, 由非撥款原則的主權債權的絕對限制,可能會導致未來衝突.

儘管完整的詳細信息任何人提出的火星飛行 (公共或私人) 仍在開發之中, 殖民的基本前提, 而不是簡單地探索, 引發關注. 外層空間條約的非撥款原則禁止“撥款通過主權要求, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means’. This suggests that the act of colonization itself is inconsistent with the Treaty. How these organizations intend to colonize without claiming sovereignty is an unresolved and vitally important issue to decide upon before landing on Mars.

One potential way of resolving this is by focusing on economic claims to the resources on Mars rather than the land itself. 公共和私人聚會可能登陸火星並建立基地在自己國家的法律將適用於所有的居民和遊客,類似 現有的支配國際空間站的法律規定. 他們也可以建立土地有限的情節,他們可以要求專屬經濟權利和行為科學. 然而, 這樣的“專屬經濟區”將沒有任何主權要求. 從任何殖民地火星居民可以通過這些區域和平通, and could even set up another base of their own. 然而, all extractable resources contained within the zone are the exclusive right of the original claimant. This proposal provides a way to satisfy the resource-gathering goals of many current Mars missions, permit plans for colonization to proceed, and fulfill the requirements of the Outer Space Treaty.

Many proponents of Mars colonization missions object that any such missions will irreversibly pollute the natural environment of Mars, 傷害科研以及玷污地球的自然之美. 為了解決這些後顧之憂, 行星公園系統類似於地球上的國家公園體系可建立. 行星公園將按照地球上的科學家都在輸入識別和規範的世界下面的共識線沿線的模型 美國航空航天局的十年調查 選擇太空任務. 有些公園可能是只開放給科學的追求, while others might be a purely aesthetic designation to preserve Mars’ natural environment.

Agreeing upon a plan like this could provide a peaceful way forward. 然而, there will always be minor conflicts between colonists, especially if the non-appropriation principle is to hold along with colonization, as no nation or organization will be able to exercise complete control over their exclusive economic zone. 臨時法庭系統可能會穩定在火星上定居者之間的糾紛不涉及國際法院法院地球上的好方法. 當兩個群體發生矛盾相互, 他們的情況下,可能會聽到由法庭由其他殖民地的代表解析. 這種模式允許通過專門解決殖民者之間的糾紛保留殖民利益.

上述計劃是一種可能的方式前進. 然而, it is crucial for nations and organizations to enter into a dialogue about how to continue. Existing plans to colonize Mars have not addressed how they will deal with the issue of claiming sovereignty. But any organization under the jurisdiction of a nation party to the Outer Space Treaty will need to abide by the Treaty’s stipulations. Perhaps the solution is to re-examine the Treaty, especially the non-appropriation principle, and determine if this requirement is still relevant today. 也許解決的辦法是修改條約時解決的方法明確決定. 對目前的狀況是太曖昧, 和衝突似乎是不可避免的,除非殖民政權在第一人類到達火星之前決定.

薩拉BRUHNS研究物理學和天文學在弗吉尼亞大學. 她調查了主權在火星上 雅各Haqq,米斯拉 (haqqmisra) 通過 青年科學家計劃科學藍色大理石航天研究所. 這裡的觀點是作者的孤獨.

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