Bawo ni eda eniyan yoo segun Mars ati ju

How humans will conquer Mars and beyond

 

Agbara nipasẹ Guardian.co.ukYi article ti akole “Bawo ni eda eniyan yoo segun Mars ati ju” a ti kọ nipa Kevin Fong, fun The Oluwoye lori Sunday 13th December 2015 08.30 UTC

Odun yi ni Royal Institution ká Christmas ikowe wo ni ipenija ti awọn eniyan aaye flight ati ohun ti o gba lati hurl eda eniyan sinu ik Furontia on Voyages ti àbẹwò.

Bi awọn kan dokita ti mo ti lo diẹ ẹ sii ju kan mewa rin pada ati siwaju laarin awọn UK ati Nasa ká Johnson Space Center ni Houston, ṣiṣẹ bi o kan àbẹwò awadi on ise agbese orisirisi lati keko ni ipa ti awọn aaye ayika on ti ogbo Fisioloji to Oríkĕ walẹ awọn ọna šiše. Ni akoko kanna Mo ti a ti ipari mi Junior egbogi ikẹkọ ni akuniloorun ati ki o lekoko itoju. O je odd gbiyanju lati splice awon meji aye jọ. Ṣiṣẹ lori ohun to lekoko itoju kuro moju, nlọ si papa ni opin ti awọn naficula, grabbing diẹ ninu awọn orun lori pete, ati ki o si de ni ijọ keji ni a ipade yara ni Houston, ibi ti awon eniyan ti won joko ni ayika sọrọ nipa bi o si fi awon eniyan kuro lailewu to Mars.

Ṣugbọn awọn ohun ti o ti sopọ mọ awọn meji ti o wà ni ipenija ti aye ni extremes. Ni awọn iwosan Mo ti a ti nwa ni extremes ti aye nigba ti laya nipa arun ati ipalara. Ni Nasa Mo ti a ti nwa ni irokeke farahan to eda eniyan Fisioloji nipasẹ awọn extremes ti awọn ti ara aye ati Agbaye.

Nigba ti a ba soro nipa awọn iwọn ayika ti a le gba a ni inira agutan ti won austerity nipa idajọ bi o gun ti won yoo ni atilẹyin eda eniyan aye pa ati ki o unsupported. Nipa ti odiwon aaye ni Gbẹhin awọn iwọn: adamo ṣodi si si eda eniyan Fisioloji, o pese ko si support fun eda eniyan aye ohunkohun ti. Awọn pa aaye ajo yoo yọ ninu ewu ni wipe ayika jo fun iseju meji.

O le fojuinu wipe nibẹ ni yio jẹ opolopo fun a dokita lati se - pe nigba ti o ba de si eda eniyan aaye àbẹwò, eniyan ti o ni oye ati ki o le riboribo eda eniyan Fisioloji yoo jẹ ni forefront ti ti akitiyan. Ṣugbọn egbogi onisegun mu a dara keji fiddle si ohun ti o jẹ overwhelmingly a asa ti ina- - ati pẹlu ti o dara idi.

Space flight ni ni ti ara opo disarmingly o rọrun. Ki o rọrun ni o daju pe Newton ti bẹrẹ lati ni oye awọn dainamiki ti underpin ti o fere 400 awọn ọdun sẹyin. Lati lọ kuro ni Earth ki o si tẹ ohun yipo ni ayika ti o, o akọkọ nilo lati jabọ ohun kọja agbaiye ki lile ti awọn oniwe-afokansi pan tayọ awọn Earth ká horizons - ki lile ti o le wa ni ṣe si ti kuna ni iru kan ona ti o ko lẹẹkansi nwa ilẹ.

Ati ki lati fi ohun sinu yipo ni ayika Earth o ni lati pese o pẹlu ohun tobi pupo iye ti agbara. Ni ọrọ ofin awọn yiyara o lọ ti awọn anfani ni rediosi ti awọn yipo o se aseyori; lati gba a ti nše ọkọ lati se aseyori ohun yipo jakejado to lati gba o lati padanu mejeji ni Earth ati awọn oke fẹlẹfẹlẹ ti awọn bugbamu, lati gbe o ni kanna giga bi awọn International Space Station diẹ ninu awọn 250 km loke wa, o nilo lati ajo ni ni ayika 17,500mph.

Ti nbeere a ti nše ọkọ propelled nipa enjini ati idana tanki pẹlu awọn ibẹjadi agbara ti a kekere iparun ija. yi ajo, from the surface of the Earth into low Earth orbit – aboard the Soyuz spacecraft – takes a little over eight minutes. And so the reason that the culture at Nasa, and space agencies across the world, is so firmly rooted in the demands of engineering rather than those of human biology is because in that brief but violent period there is almost nothing modern medicine can offer in the way of protection. During launch, either the engineering works and everyone lives, or it doesn’t and everyone perishes.

The preservation of human life throughout launch depends not upon medical procedures but on concentric layers of artificial protection that engineers design and build and swaddle the astronaut crews in.

The rocket engines must fire perfectly, delivering just the right thrust at just the right time, directed in precisely the right way. The tremendous force of that propulsion mustn’t be allowed to shake the vehicle, its systems or its fragile cargo of passengers apart. It is the job of engineering teams to make sure that the launcher and the vehicle are designed to perform in the face of forces that are trying to destroy them.

And perched atop that tower of kerosene and oxygen is a tiny capsule, with the volume of a handful of telephone boxes, and a couple of tonnes of supplies and three passengers crammed in among them. That capsule is a tiny bubble of life support, pinched off from the Earth and maintained artificially. Inu, ṣi siwaju sii ero pese a breathable bugbamu pẹlu to titẹ ati iferan lati se atileyin fun aye ni ofo ni ti aaye. Ti o ba yọ ninu ewu awọn ifilole, rẹ isoro ti wa ni gan nikan o kan, ti o bẹrẹ.

Chris Hadfield lori iss
ga tabili: Chris Hadfield njẹ ni odo walẹ ngbenu awọn International Space Station. Aworan: on

International Space Station

O ni idanwo to ro ti awọn International Space Station bi a hi-tekinoloji ńlá arakunrin ile, lilefoofo ga jù awọn Earth. Ni diẹ ninu awọn ogbon ti o jẹ otitọ: ngbe ipo ni o wa simi nipa eyikeyi deede boṣewa. Nibẹ ni o wa diẹ ẹdá ìgbádùn ati awọn iyebiye kekere asiri. O ti wa ni a ngbe akanṣe bristling pẹlu awọn pọju fun tobi awujo rogbodiyan. Ṣugbọn ti ifiyesi ti o ti wa ibebe yee ati ni 15 ọdun ti isẹ nibẹ ti ko si evictions.

Ṣugbọn awọn ISS jẹ Elo siwaju sii ju ohun ibugbe Àkọsílẹ. Nigba ti awọn atukọ lọ lati gbe nibẹ ni nwọn ti wa ni mu soke ibugbe inu a ẹrọ lori eyi ti aye won dale gbogbo keji ti awọn ọjọ. Nwọn electrolyse omi lati gbe awọn atẹgun, bẹ molikula sieves lati scrub egbin ategun jade ti awọn air ki nwọn ki o simi, ṣiṣe awọn alapapo awọn ọna šiše lati tiwa ni oorun imole ti o le fifa jade 80kW ti agbara. Ti o oorun agbara tun iwakọ mẹrin tobi gyroscopes, eyi ti duro ati ki o da ori awọn ibudo, dena o lati tumbling jade ti Iṣakoso.

The International Space Station jẹ jina lati tranquil: o hums ati whines perpetually; egeb ti wa ni nṣiṣẹ gbogbo awọn akoko. Lai walẹ gbona air ko ni dide ati ki o tutu air ko ni rì. O wa, bi a Nitori, ko si convection ati lai wipe o ni gidigidi lati gba air lati gbe tabi ki o illa. Ti o ni Tan fa isoro, nlọ astronauts prone to efori ni ibi ti ventilated agbegbe, ibi ti exhaled erogba oloro le kọ soke. Nibi ti ibakan ilu ti Motors churning air. Awọn Akọpamọ lori ISS, bi fere ohun gbogbo miran ti awọn atukọ dale lori fun ilera alãye, ni o wa Oríkĕ. Gbogbo awọn ti yi akitiyan kan lati bojuto ti o ti nkuta ti aye support ni ohun outpost kan 250 km loke ori wa. Awọn italaya lowo ni o wa Ẹgbẹ pataki ati awọn ti a ti ko ani bere lati soro nipa nlọ kekere Earth yipo sibẹsibẹ.

Pada si awọn oṣupa

Nibẹ ni unfinished owo lori awọn oṣupa. O ti wa ni fere idaji orundun kan niwon awọn Apollo eto gbe kan mejila ọkunrin lori awọn oniwe-dada. Ati nigba ti o duro a iṣura trove ti ijinle sayensi Awari, ko si eniti o ti pada niwon. Low Earth yipo ni 250 km kuro ati ki o le wa ni ami ni iṣẹju. Oṣupa jẹ nipa 250,000 km kuro, gba ọjọ lati gba si ati, ni afikun si ipinya ati awọn kun complexity ti awọn Rocket Imọ ti a beere, fi oju awọn atukọ lalailopinpin ipalara si Ìtọjú. On Earth a ba ni idaabobo lati diẹ ninu awọn orisi ti Ìtọjú nipa nipọn ibora ti bugbamu loke, eyi ti absorbs gamma egungun, x-egungun ati ultraviolet Ìtọjú ti yoo bibẹkọ ti jẹ ipalara ti. Ṣugbọn nibẹ ni miiran Layer ti Idaabobo ti o tun ntọju wa ailewu: Earth ti se aaye.

Awọn magnetosphere sero jade a paapa ipalara eya ti Ìtọjú, eyi ti o wa ni awọn fọọmu ti gba agbara, high-energy particles – atomic nuclei spat out as a by-product of thermonuclear reactions in stars including our own. This type of radiation is particularly harmful and, during solar flares, can increase in intensity by many thousands of times. Presently we have little in the way of effective protection from the radiation that comes with the worst solar flares.

Mars and beyond

In recent years the idea of putting human crews on the surface of something other than the moon or Mars has found its way into the strategy documents of the international space agencies. This mission is less science fiction than you might think. The European Space Agenecy’s Rosetta mission, which so spectacularly landed the Philae lander on the surface of a comet last year, showed us that we could find and intercept a tiny target hurtling through space hundreds of billions of miles away. This has given agencies confidence that their idea of landing a human crew on an asteroid might be realisable.

But for now it is Mars that lies at the edge of possibility, and surviving that journey presents a challenge on a different scale. With Mars, the problem is distance and time. To get to the red planet you have to traverse hundreds of millions of interplanetary miles; ju lọ 1,000 times the distance Apollo crews travelled to the moon. With existing technology it would take between six and nine months to travel from Earth to Mars and the same again on the return leg.

That’s a lot of time spent without any gravitational load on your body. Weightlessness may look like fun, but like everything else, too much of it can be a bad thing. When physiologists first considered what effect the space environment might have on the human body, before anybody had even been into space, they correctly predicted that muscle and bone would waste. Those systems are sculpted by gravity and as anyone who has ever so much as looked at a gym knows, if you don’t use it you lose it. Because of this, crews aboard the International Space Station must subject themselves to a daily programme of resistive exercise to try and prevent some of that bone and muscle loss.

the surface of mars
Was there life on Mars? Dark streaks on the planet’s surface which seem to indicate the presence of flowing water. Aworan: Nasa/Reuters

Weightlessness wreaks havoc with other systems. It upsets your senses of balance and co-ordination, making it more difficult for crew members to track moving targets, creating illusions of motion and, for the first few days of flight, generally making them feel pretty queasy. With the exception of the nausea, all of these problems tend to get worse the longer you spend weightless.

Die laipe, new – and potentially more worrying – problems have cropped up. For reasons that are not yet entirely clear the pressure in some astronauts’ brains appears to rise as a consequence of space flight, and this has been linked to alterations in their eyesight that sometimes persist for many years after their return to Earth. This phenomenon has only been noticed after long duration missions, which highlights the message: spending a lot of time in space isn’t great for your health.

But time also creates problems for life support systems. If you imagine the amount of food, omi, oxygen and power a single person might consume in a mission set to last up to three years (if you include the surface stay), that demands quite a sizable larder. Now multiply that by a crew of four or six and it looks like you need an impossibly huge spacecraft just to keep you fed and watered.

And that does become impossible unless you are able to recycle and reuse everything you can. Already aboard the space station astronauts recycle most of their waste water, including their urine. They scrub carbon dioxide out of their exhaled air and rebreathe the remaining oxygen. You might be able to go further still, by growing crops hydroponically, as a source of food and a mechanism of removing carbon dioxide and renewing the oxygen supply. If you choose the right plants you might even recycle the nitrogen in human solid waste. Which of course is a scientific way of saying that maybe you could use your own poo to fertilise your life-supporting crops.

A system as sophisticated as that is extremely difficult to assemble, manage and maintain, and it’s likely to be a while before we see greenhouses flying through deep space. For now life support engineers will content themselves with finding ways to recycle more and more of the resources they can, and in so doing reducing the amount of payload that crews have to set aside for the things that keep them alive.

There is a simple lesson from all of this: space is hard. All frontier endeavours are. But there is plenty to celebrate here. Since the start of the 21st century there has been a permanent human presence in space. What started as a surrogate battlefield for nuclear war has become a multinational programme of science, exploration and collaboration. This is not the place to get into a discussion of why we should explore space at all. There are many benefits that derive from human space exploration but one is more important than all the rest. Human space exploration inspires children to study and pursue careers in science, technology and engineering. It does so by showing them that within the limits of human imagination anything might be possible. I know this because it inspired me and throughout the whole of my life has continued to hold my fascination.

It is an enormous honour to give the Royal Institution’s Christmas Lectures. And yes, the take-home message is that space is hard. But the real lesson for this year’s audience is that this has been my adventure and it can be yours too.

How to Survive in Space will be shown on BBC4 in three parts on 28, 29 ati 30 December at 8pm. Find out more on the Royal Institution’s website and join the conversation on Twitter and Instagram by following @ri_science or searching for #xmaslectures

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