Olimlar bir "Miya Atlantika" yaratdik

Scientists Have Created an “Atlas of the Brain”

miya ko'rish orqali, olimlar so'zlar va ularning ma'nolari miyaning turli hududlarida vakili qanday namoyon xaritani qurdik


Guardian.co.uk byNomli Ushbu maqola “Nörobilimadamları so'zlar miyasida tashkil qanday ko'rsatgan "atlas» yaratish” Ian Sample Ilmiy muharriri tomonidan yozilgan, uchun theguardian.com Chorshanba 27 aprel kuni 2016 17.00 UTC

Olimlar so'zlarning ma'nolari organi turli hududlarida tashkil qanday ochib bir "miya atlas" yaratdik.

po'stlog'ida ustidan qo'ydi bir rangli yorgan kabi, individual so'zlar va ular etkazaman tushunchalar oq materiya guruhlar bilan birga guruhlangan bo'lishi mumkin qanday qilib Kamalak Ohanglar atlas ko'rsatadi.

"Bizning maqsadimiz tilining ma'lum bir jihati miya vakili qanday ko'rsatadi bahaybat atlas qurish edi, Bu holda semantik yilda, so'zlarning yoki ma'nolari,"Jack Gallant dedi, Kaliforniya universiteti sinirbilimci, Berkeley.

No yagona miya viloyati, bir so'z yoki tushunchasini ushlab. Yagona miya spot bog'liq so'zlarni bir qator bilan bog'liq. Va har bir so'z juda ko'p turli miya dog'lar yonib. Ular birgalikda biz foydalanish har bir so'zning ma'nolarini ifodalaydi tarmoqlari tashkil etadi: hayot va muhabbat; o'lim va soliqlar; bulutlar, Florida va bralar. Barcha o'z tarmoqlari yonadi.

Olimlar har xil so'zlarni eshitish, miya hududlari javob interaktiv xaritasi ko'rsatadigan yaratdik.

ishda ishtirok yo'q edi, bir tadqiqotchi tomonidan "Tour de kuch", deb ta'rif, atlas miya uning eng muhim vazifalaridan o'qiydi qanday bizning bilim o'zgartiradi qanday zamonaviy tasvirlash ko'rsatadi. yanada yutuqlar bilan, texnologiya tibbiyot va boshqa sohalar bo'yicha chuqur ta'sir ko'rsatishi mumkin.

"Bu yondashuv bir kishi eshitib nima so'zlar haqida ma'lumot hal qilish uchun foydalanish mumkin mumkin, o'qish, yoki, ehtimol, hatto fikrlash,"Aleksandr Huth dedi, o'rganish bo'yicha birinchi muallifi. Bir salohiyati foydalanish, odamlar bir kompyuter orqali motor nöron kasalligi bilan jim yoki qulflangan-yilda sindromi gapirish imkonini beradi mumkin bo'lgan til dekoder bo'lardi.

atlas yaratish, Ular hikoyalar tashqariga o'qish tingladi esa olimlar xalq miya faoliyatini qayd Your Radio soat, AQSh radio show. Ular keyin tegishli so'z guruhlari bilan asab javob tetiklenir qanday ko'rsatish uchun miya faoliyati ma'lumotlar bilan hikoyalar transkript mos 50,000 uchun 80,000 Barcha bosh miya po'stlog'ida ustidan no'xat-o'lchamli dog'lar.

Ular qisqa va jabbor, chunki Huth Your Radio soat hikoyalar ishlatiladi. yana hikoyalar maftun, ko'proq ishonch olimlar skanerdan etilmoqda, odamlar so'zlarga diqqat va off siljish yo'q, deb bo'lishi mumkin. Yetti kishi hikoyalar har ikki soat tinglab. kishi boshiga, bu taxminan eshitib tashkil etdi 25,000 so'zlar- dan va undan ko'p 3,000 turli so'zlar – ular skaner yotar sifatida.

atlas so'zlar va tegishli atamalar miyaning Shu viloyatlarini mashqlar qanday ko'rsatadi. Masalan, miyaning chap tomonida, qulog'i yuqorida, so'zni "qurboni" vakili kichik viloyatlaridan biri hisoblanadi. Shu viloyati "o'ldirilgan" javob, "Aybdor", "O'ldirilgan" va "iqror". Miyaning ning o'ng tomonida, boshning yuqori yaqin, oila shartlariga faollashtirilgan miya joylaridan biri hisoblanadi: "Xotini", "er", "Bolalar", "Ota-onalar".

so'zlar bir necha ma'nolarga ega bo'lish istagi, chunki har bir so'z bir necha joyida tomonidan taqdim etiladi. miyaning bir qismi, masalan, ishonchli so'ziga javob "eng", kiyim tasvirlab boshqa so'zlar bilan birga. Lekin "eng" so'zi boshqa ko'plab viloyatlarini faollashtiradi. Ulardan biri raqamlar va o'lchovlari javob, binolar va joylarga boshqa. olimlar yaratgan bir interaktiv veb-sayti where the public can explore the brain atlas.

Strikingly, the brain atlases were similar for all the participants, suggesting that their brains organised the meanings of words in the same way. The scientists only scanned five men and two women, ammo. All are native English speakers, and two are authors of the study published in tabiat. It is highly possible that people from different backgrounds and cultures will have different semantic brain atlases.

Armed with the atlas, researchers can now piece together the brain networks that represent wildly different concepts, from numbers to murder and religion. “The idea of murder is represented a lot in the brain,” Gallant said.

Using the same haul of data, the group has begun work on new atlases that show how the brain holds information on other aspects of language, from phonemes to syntax. A brain atlas for narrative structure has so far proved elusive, ammo. “Every time we come up with a set of narrative features, we get told they aren’t the right set of narrative features,” said Gallant.

Uri Hasson, a neuroscientist at Princeton University, praised the work. Unlike many studies that looked at brain activity when an isolated word or sentence was spoken, Gallant’s team had shed light on how the brain worked in a real-world scenario, u dedi. The next step, u dedi, was to create a more comprehensive and precise semantic brain atlas. Oxir oqibatda, Hasson believes it will be possible to reconstruct the words a person is thinking from their brain activity. The ethical implications are enormous. One more benign use would see brain activity used to assess whether political messages have been effectively communicated to the public. “There are so many implications, and we are barely touching the surface,"Dedi.

Lorraine Tyler, a cognitive neuroscientist and head of the Centre for Speech, Language and the Brain at Cambridge University said the research was a “tour de force in its scope and methods”. But the brain atlas in its current form does not capture fine differences in word meanings. Take the word “table”. It can be a member of many different groups, says Tyler. “It can be something to eat off, things made of wood, things that are heavy, things having four legs, non-animate objects, va hokazo. This kind of detailed semantic information that enables words to be used flexibly is lost in the analysis,"Dedi u. “While this research is path-breaking in its scope, there is still a lot to learn about how semantics is represented in the brain.”

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