Guardian.co.uk byNomli Ushbu maqola “2014 ilm-fan inqiloblar: hech qarish, kometa bo'yicha g'or san'at va qo'ndirish” Robin McKie tomonidan yozilgan, Payshanba, 18-dekabr kuni Guardian uchun 2014 19.28 UTC

uning qo'nish tizimlari barcha uch ta'siri olmadi va uning yassi va uzatish keyin faoliyat qo'yishdi 57 soat. kometa 67P / Churyumov-Gerasimenko o'tgan oy o'zini bog'langan hali Philae probe, birga uning ota Rosetta bilan, Kecha biri deb tan olishgan edi jurnali fan kashfiyotlar 2014.

Yevropa kosmik agentligi missiyasi kometa 67P quyosh tizimida ettinchi o'rinni qiladi (biridan Yerdan) qaysi bir kosmik kemasi kelib qo'ndi qildi, jurnal deydi. Venera, Mars, Moon, Saturnning oy Titan, va ikki asteroitler ro'yxatini yakunlash. Lekin Rosetta muvaffaqiyati quyosh tizimi davra manevra jihatidan eng murakkab edi, u, quyoshga qarab borarkan, bu yil boshida kometa 67P sekin erishish xunarga tark 10-yil safar. o'rdak shaklidagi kometa sirtini xaritalash keyin Rosetta uning oz Lander ozod 12 Noyabr. Ammo, bo'yiga tashlandi, zıpkınlarla, vida va uning maqsad barcha olmadi va hunarmandchilik, bir jarlik soyasida pastga ajratgani kometa yuzasining bo'ylab zaifona tiklana uni Mur kerak edi iticileri teskari. quyosh nuri holda uning Elektron zaryad qilish uchun, Philae hokimiyat yugurib chiqib 57 soatdan keyin.

Philae lander
Philae lander 67P / Churyumov-Gerasimenko kometa uchun ozayib tasvirlangan. Fotosurat: ESA / Getty Images

Shunday bo'lsa-da, 67P haqida qimmatli ma'lumotlar katta ekanligini vaqt ichida uzatiladi qilindi va Rosetta kometa yaqinroq va yaqinroq quyoshga supurmoqda sifatida kelgusi yil uchun faqat bir necha o'nlab kilometr masofada uni tadqiq qilish davom etadi bilan sozlangan, chang va muz katta filamentler uning yuzasiga quyinglar qachon.

Rosetta tomonidan amalga kashfiyotlar orasida edi kuzatish deb kometa 67P suv izotopi imzo Erdagi suv deb juda farq qiladi, nazariyasiga zarba urib Yer kollapsining kometalar dan muz bizning okeanlar tashkil qaysi suv taqdim. Fan deyilgan sifatida, "Missiya kometa yangi bir fan yoshi to'g'risidagi Xushxabarni."

ikki tomonlama onlayn ovoz orqali tanlangan - - Yilning bu yilgi Science NASA ham maqtov olish uchun boshqa tadqiqot ekanligini ko'rsatadi bir necha guruhlar tomonidan olib borilgan tadqiqotlar ham o'z ichiga oladi yosh sichqoncha qon yoki qon qismlariga eski Sichqonning muskullar va miyani yoshartiradi mumkin. Fan yozuvlari, Ish chuqur ahamiyatga ega. "Natijalari odamlarda tutib bo'lsa - bir fikr-da, sinov - yosh qonga omillar insoniyat qadar orqaga Yoshlar favvorasi uchun Xuan Ponce ham Leon ning sarguzasht sifatida harakat qilgan qarish dori taklif mumkin."

Bu yangi testlar o'z ichiga oladi, bir klinik sud o'z ichiga oladi 18 o'rta yoshlardagi va bunama jang yordam berishi mumkin, agar katta yosh kattalar tomonidan taqdim qon plazmasi enjeksiyonları berilgan etilmoqda Alzgeymer bemorlar ko'rish uchun. Natijalar kelasi yili kutilmoqda.

Indoneziyada bir g'orda topilgan A qo'l Stencil
Indoneziyada bir g'orda topilgan A qo'l Stencil, erta insoniyat va tarix oldin paytlarda san'at rivojlanishi haqida yangi savollar oshirish. Fotosurat: Wollong / zbekiston Kinez Riza / University

Fan tomonidan qayd boshqa taniqli rivoji kashfiyot ekanini Sulawesi orolida Maros g'orda g'or san'at, Indoneziya, deb 10,000 yoshda, deb, Aslini olib qaraganda, to'rt marta katta va Evropa mashhur g'or san'at Chauvet va boshqa saytlar topish kamida qadimiy bo'lib. san'at rasmlari ustida paydo bo'ldi damlataş o'sish yilda uran radioaktiv parchalanishga o'lchash tomonidan yil bo'ldi. Bu hayvonlarning shaxsning qo'llari ustida pigmentleri va tasvirlar sepish tomonidan yaratilgan andozalar o'z ichiga oladi. Rasmlar antiqa ular Yevropa va Osiyoga Afrika yoyib oldin zamonaviy insonlar allaqachon murakkab san'atkorlar uzoq edi, deb taklif qiladi 60,000 yil avval.

qush qanoti
qush ichiga dinozavrlar evolyutsiyasi ergashish Fotosurat: David Cheskin / PA

qushlar evolyutsiya tushunchamiz taraqqiyotlar ham bu yil Science ro'yxatini qildi. Discoveries of fossils in China revealed that birdlike innovations – in particularly feathers – emerged on several occasions in the history of dinosaurs. Feathers seem to have evolved not just as aids to flying but also as providers of insulation, display and balance.

Several studies of the particular lineage of dinosaurs that gave rise to birds showed they steadily got smaller and smaller and developed finer bones over time – until creatures that we now recognise as birds appeared on the scene. From these early avian predecessors, new species speedily emerged.

Ammo, the overall winner for Science’s Breakthrough of 2014 involved work by researchers who added two artificial versions to the alphabet of natural nucleotides that make up genetic code. In virtually all living things, the natural nucleotide G pairs with C while A pairs with T. The exception is provided by a flask of Escherichia coli on a lab bench in southern California to which a novel pair of nucleotides, X and Y, have been added.

The research suggests it may be possible to persuade bacteria to behave in ways they cannot do naturally – though the scientists involved stress that any escaping altered bugs could not pose a danger to humanity as they could not replicate.

A technician extracts millions of nucleotides from a plastic centrifuge tube
A technician extracts millions of nucleotides from a plastic centrifuge tube. Fotosurat: Ted Spiegel/Corbis

Science’s top ten breakthroughs

• Giving life a bigger genetic alphabet. How scientists added new letters to the genetic code.

• Bringing in new blood. Researchers show blood components from the young can rejuvenate an old mouse’s muscles and brain.

• Landing on a comet. Rosetta’s ten-year mission to comet 67P promises to transform our knowledge about the solar system.

• Cells that might cure diabetes. Researchers create insulin-making cells in the laboratory.

• Cooperative robots. Engineers use novel software to create fleets of tiny robots that can gather in formations and build simple structures.

• The birth of birds. Scientists detail the many steps that turned lumbering dinosaurs into graceful birds.

• Chips that mimic the brain. IBM and other companies have designed neuromorphic chips that process information in ways close to living brains

• Cave art. Scientists quadruple the age of cave art in Indonesia.

• Manipulating memory. Researchers have found ways to delete existing memories in mice and insert new ones.

• The rise of the CubeSat. Tiny 10cm-wide boxes containing a few thousand dollars worth of equipment are being used increasingly as cheap satellites.

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