Jinsi ya kutoroka Online Spies

How to Escape the Online Spies

Ikiwa uko tweeting, ununuzi au kuvinjari tu, Makampuni internet ni ufuatiliaji wewe. Hapa ni jinsi ya kukwepa snoopers


Powered by Guardian.co.ukMakala hii yenye jina “Jinsi ya kuepuka wapelelezi online” iliandikwa na Darien Graham-Smith, kwa Observer Jumamosi 13 Mei 2017 18.00 UTC

Hakuna mtu anapenda kuwa spied juu. Wakati wewe ni bila kufahamu kuvinjari mtandao, ni undani unpleasant kufikiri kwamba kisichokuwa na uso teknolojia makampuni ni ufuatiliaji na kurekodi yako kila hoja.

Wakati wa ukusanyaji data kama ni halali, hiyo haimaanishi ni sawa. Kuna mengi ya mambo unaweza wanapendelea kwa matumizi yako mwenyewe, kama vile mapato yako, kujamiiana yako, maoni yako kisiasa au uanachama wako wa Yoko Ono fanclub. Kwa dalili ya nini inaweza inferred kutoka tabia yako online, kuangalia Weka Magic Mchuzi chombo zinazozalishwa na Cambridge Saikometriki Center, ambayo inazalisha profile ya utu wako kulingana na Facebook na Twitter data.

Na wakati unaweza kuwafariji mwenyewe na maarifa kwamba wote wa habari hii hutumika kwa ajili ya kulenga matangazo, kwamba wanaweza kuwa kesi kwa muda mrefu. makubwa internet ni kujenga maelezo ya kina zaidi milele mtumiaji - na kupata njia mpya ya kutumia taarifa ambazo. Ndani ya Observer, Carole Cadwalladr ya uchunguzi unaoendelea ina yalionyesha jinsi mbinu ya uchambuzi zilitumika katika hivi karibuni EU kura ya maoni ili kulenga na ujumbe hila kwa makundi ya wapiga kura persuadable kulingana na ufahamu kisaikolojia kukusanywa kutoka data online.

Hata kama wewe ni walishirikiana kuhusu makampuni analytics michezo ya kubahatisha mchakato wa kisiasa, unaweza kuwa bothered zaidi kuhusu athari kwa mkoba wako: watafiti katika Chuo Kikuu cha Ufundi wa Catalonia tayari kupatikana ushahidi kwamba baadhi ya wauzaji online kutumia profiling kwa ubaguzi dhidi ya wateja fulani. Kama wewe ni kutambuliwa kama thamani ya juu shopper, wewe ni uwezekano wa kuwa na aliongoza kuelekea bidhaa ghali zaidi, au hata kushtakiwa zaidi ya wageni wengine kwa bidhaa hiyo.

Na hiyo ni mwanzo tu wa hiyo. Wataalamu wanaonya kuwa, katika siku za usoni, shughuli yako online inaweza kuzingatiwa wakati kuomba kwa ajili ya mkopo - au kwa kazi. Hiyo ni kumsumbua, bila kutaja kwamba profiling inahusisha kipengele kubwa ya dhana na maoni ya. Kitu wapole kama kutafuta matatizo ya kiafya - hata nje ya udadisi tu - inaweza kusababisha malipo ya bima yako kwa roketi, na hutaweza kujua kwa nini.

Hata kama na kitu cha kuficha, Kwa hiyo, inaweza kuwa ni busara ili kupunguza yatokanayo wako kwa kufuatilia online. Hapa ni jinsi baadhi ya majina makubwa kwenye mtandao kukupeleleza - na jinsi ya kulinda faragha yako.

Amazon

sauti msaidizi Amazon Echo
Kubonyeza kifungo bubu juu ya Amazon Echo sauti msaidizi itakuwa muda kuacha ni kurekodi sauti. Picha: Samuel Gibbs kwa Guardian

Amazon ana tabia disconcerting ya yafuatayo wewe kuvinjari mtandaoni. Kutumia dakika chache ya kuvinjari orodha yake mpya crepe pan, na unaweza kupata kwamba tovuti ya wewe kutembelea ni mysteriously festooned na matangazo kwa ajili ya cookware.

Shukrani, Amazon inatoa njia rahisi ya kujitoa kwenye kuwa na msisimko kwa njia hii. Bonyeza tu juu ya "Akaunti yako" kutoka Amazon homepage, kisha kitabu chini ya "Mapendeleo Utangazaji": hapa utaona chaguo kuzima matangazo Msako. Kumbuka kwamba kwa kuwa kipengele hiki hutegemea cookies, itakuwa tu kufanya kazi katika browser unayotumia kwa sasa.

Chini ya "Mapendekezo matangazo", utaweza kuona pia fursa ya kuangalia na kusimamia historia yako; kutoka hapa unaweza kuzima kufuatilia kabisa, au kuondoa vipengee mahsusi kwenye historia ya Amazon. Ambayo inaweza kuwa na manufaa kama wewe ni ununuzi kwa ajili ya zawadi, au kama wewe tumekuwa kuvinjari vitu unfashionable msiotaka kukumbushwa.

Nini kuhusu vifaa sauti msaidizi Amazon? Kama una Amazon Echo katika nyumba yako, unaweza kuwa na wasiwasi kuhusu hilo kusikiliza katika juu mazungumzo binafsi. Wengine uhakika, Echo haina kuandika chochote ni kusikia mpaka kushughulikia kwa sahihi "wake neno" (kawaida "Alexa"). Chochote kusema unaofuata ilipeleka kwa Amazon, ambapo ni kusindika na kuhifadhiwa, lakini unaweza kufuta data hii wakati wowote - utapata fursa ya kufanya hivyo katika Amazon "Usimamizi wa maudhui yako na Vifaa" mipangilio.

Ili kuhakikisha kuwa Alexa hawezi kuwa woken up hata kwa ajali, unaweza kubonyeza kifungo bubu juu ya Echo kwa muda afya kipaza; vyombo vya habari tu tena ili kugeuka kuwa nyuma. Ni muhimu kubainisha, Hata hivyo, kuwa programu Echo ya updates moja kwa moja, hivyo tabia yake inaweza kubadilika wakati wowote. We’ll be keeping a sharp eye out for any updates that could compromise your privacy.

Apple

Teenager using a Macbook laptop
The macOS operating system passes your search terms on to Apple. Picha: Graeme Robertson for the Guardian

iPhones and iPads collect a lot of data about you, and it’s accessible not just to Apple but to third-party apps too. The “Privacy” section in the iOS Settings app gives you an overview of what’s being collected, and lets you disable various data-sharing features.

One particular thing to note is that if you’re carrying an iPhone around in your pocket, it will be constantly keeping track of your location, and potentially sharing it. You can easily tell it not to, ingawa: in the Settings app, tap on “Privacy” > “Location Services” and select which apps should have access to your GPS data. You can also disable system services such as “Frequent Locations”, or disable location services altogether – though this means that apps like Apple Maps won’t work.

It’s a similar situation for Mac users. The macOS system uses network connections to work out where in the world your computer is located, and this information can be shared with applications and websites. You can manage this from “System Preferences” > “Security & Privacy”.

Another privacy concern for macOS users is the fact that every time you search for something in Spotlight, your search terms are passed on to Apple, so the company’s servers can provide suggested links to online sources. You can disable this feature by opening “System Preferences” > “Spotlight” and unticking the box for “Spotlight Suggestions”.

hatimaye, keep an eye on your webcam, as malware can allow hackers to literally spy on you via your Mac’s built-in camera. If the light comes on unexpectedly, that means someone’s watching you; for complete peace of mind, you can always cover the camera with opaque tape. Consider also going to “System Preferences” > “Sound” and disabling the internal microphone, to ensure no one’s eavesdropping on your conversations.

Facebook

Facebook screens
Facebook: you might decide the safest option is not to have an account. Picha: Carl Court/Getty Images

You’ve probably handed plenty of personal information to Facebook yourself – but the social network also tracks your visits to other websites to build up a scarily detailed profile of your lifestyle and interests. This information is mostly used for targeting ads, but it could be turned to other purposes in the future.

Facebook is quite open about the information it collects. When you see an ad on your timeline, you can always click the drop-down menu at its top right and select “Why am I seeing this?” to discover why Facebook chose to show you an ad for a smartphone, rather than one for scented soap. For a fuller explanation of what Facebook knows about you, go to the “Settings” page and click “Adverts” to inspect your advertising profile. If there are any mistakes here, or advertisers you don’t want to hear from, they can be removed or blocked with a click.

The creepy part is that, by default, Facebook’s targeted ads don’t appear only in Facebook itself. Facebook uses cookies to follow your profile on to other websites and, like Amazon, ensure that you see the ads it wants you to. You can disable this behaviour from the advert preferences page: under “Advert settings” you’ll see a rather awkwardly phrased setting for “Ads on apps and websites off of the Facebook Companies”. Set this to “No” and you should regain a degree of online anonymity.

Ni kweli, this doesn’t mean that Facebook isn’t still profiling you: there’s sadly no easy way to stop it collecting information. Your best bet is to turn to the measures described in “The internet”, below, such as enabling “Do Not Track” in your browser, specifically opting out or installing an anti-tracking browser extension. au, bila shaka, you may decide it’s safest just to delete your Facebook account.

Google

Google’s My Activity page
Google’s My Activity page allows you to view your entire browsing history. Picha: Samuel Gibbs kwa Guardian

Most of us use Google services every day, and as a result the web giant knows a huge amount about our movements and interests. You can find out everything it’s learned about you at myaccount.google.com. Your data is all set out in an impressively forthright way; Tatizo tu ni, there’s so much information to work through that it can be bewildering to navigate.

One section that’s worth your attention is “Manage your Google activity”. Here you’ll find Google’s activity controls, which let you disable various types of data collection. Kwa mfano, you can tell Google not to log your Chrome browsing history and activity, to stop tracking your location and to desist from keeping records of any voice commands you might issue. Turning these features off can make Google services less smart, but you might consider that a price worth paying.

For a closer look at the information Google’s been collecting on you lately, click on “My activity”. This brings up a timeline showing all of your searches, webpage visits, Android app activity and so forth. Seeing your digital life laid bare like this can be pretty unnerving: if there’s something you’d prefer Google to forget, simply click on the menu icon to its right and delete.

If you want to thoroughly inspect everything Google knows about you, you can even download a comprehensive archive of personal information by clicking on “Control your content” > “Download your data”. Be warned, ingawa, this archive can be huge: the default settings include all the emails in your Gmail account, and any videos you may have uploaded to YouTube.

If you want to limit the information you share with Google in the future, the easiest way is simply to use it less. Kwa mfano, try the privacy-focused search engine at duckduckgo.com, and use an alternative browser such as Firefox.

Microsoft

Windows 10’s “telemetry” features automatically capture all sorts of information about what you’re doing on your PC, and send it back to Microsoft. The company insists that this information is only used to improve Windows, but it can still feel like a violation.

The recent “Creators Update” kwa Windows 10 prompts you to review your privacy settings as part of the update process, but you can check and change your settings at any time: simply open the Windows 10 Settings app and click on “Privacy”. You’ll find no fewer than 18 pages of configuration options, covering everything from personalised advertising to location services.

There are a few settings you might particularly want to check. One feature of Windows 10 that may be cause for concern is the way it tracks everything you type – yes, everything – and shares it with Microsoft. This is supposed to help the operating system learn the way you work, but if the idea makes you shudder, you can disable it under “Speech, inking and typing”.

Under “Feedback & diagnostics”, meanwhile, you can choose how much diagnostic information gets periodically sent back to Microsoft. A full report includes details of which applications you’ve been using and which websites you’ve been visiting, so you might prefer to switch to the more limited basic setting. You can also manage the information that Microsoft already knows about you by visiting the Privacy Dashboard at account.microsoft.com/privacy.

While not strictly a privacy issue, another controversial aspect of Windows 10 is the inclusion of ads in the user interface. To remove unwanted ads from the Start menu, go to “Settings” > “Personalisation” > “Start” and disable “Occasionally show suggestions in Start”. To stop Microsoft advertising its OneDrive cloud storage service, open File Explorer, then select “View” > “Options” > “Change folder and search options”, click on the “View” tab, and untick “Show sync provider notifications”.

The internet

Google Chrome settings
Google Chrome, like most major browsers, has options to disable tracking. Picha: Samuel Gibbs kwa Guardian

All right, it’s an exaggeration to say that the internet as a whole is spying on you. But there are a hell of a lot of companies out there keeping tabs on your online activity. The motivation normally comes down to filthy lucre – tracking your interests helps them push relevant ads your way, and to be fair you might prefer those to irrelevant ones.

If you’d rather not be tracked, one step you can immediately take is to enable the “do not track” feature in your browser. Ndiyo, it’s that simple: every major web browser has the capability to tell websites that you don’t want to be followed – you can find more details at donottrack.us. The only problem with this system is that compliance is completely optional, so websites that want to follow you still can.

Another thing you can do is visit youradchoices.com, a site that checks your browser for “tracking cookies” from more than 100 makampuni. You can disable individual cookies, or turn off all behavioural advertising with a single click. After this, you’ll still see ads, but they won’t be customised to your interests any more.

A more drastic solution is to configure your browser to reject third-party cookies – that is, cookies that connect to a site other than the one you’re currently browsing. Hata hivyo, this can cause problems if, kwa mfano, a site uses embedded content from elsewhere on the web. A safer option is to use a tool such as Ghostery ; this free browser extension can block tracking cookies from more than 4,500 makampuni, while letting you selectively enable cross-site content. It’s a pain that this should be necessary, but if you don’t want your personal information to be shared around online, it’s a precaution worth taking.

guardian.co.uk © Guardian Habari & Media Limited 2010

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1606 1 Mei 14, 2017