Powered by Guardian.co.ukMakala hii yenye jina “Apple: unafanya nini baada ya kuwa wengi zaidi duniani yenye faida kampuni?” iliandikwa na Rupert Neate katika New York, kwa Observer siku ya Jumamosi Januari 31 2015 15.01 UTC

wakati Apple kuwa kampuni ya faida zaidi katika historia wiki iliyopita, wachambuzi ni vigumu vyenye msisimko yao.

"Stunning", "Bora", "Monster" baadhi ya athari wachambuzi 'walikuwa na idadi kuonyesha Silicon Valley kampuni alifanya $ 18bn (£ 12bn) katika miezi mitatu tu - kwa kuuza 34,000 iphone saa kote saa kuanzia Oktoba hadi Desemba. Sasa ina $ 178bn fedha katika benki.

Lakini baada ya vurugu zote, maswali alianza. Kwa kampuni ambayo ina kuja nyuma kutoka ukingoni mwa kufilisika chini ya 20 miaka iliyopita, muda gani unaweza habari njema kuendelea? Hapa ni maswali sita kubwa zinazokabili kubwa duniani ya mafanikio ya kampuni.

kifedha, ni hii kilele?

Apple alikuwa 90 siku mbali na kufilisika wakati Steve Jobs alirudi katika 1997- kama yeye baadaye umebaini - lakini Apple sasa inaelekea downplay mafanikio yake ya kifedha kabla ya matangazo faida baada ya miezi mitatu ili mshangao wawekezaji na wachambuzi.

robo hii ya faida walikuwa juu ya wadogo mwingine, ingawa. Mauzo katika kipindi cha miezi mitatu hadi mwisho wa Desemba walikuwa up 30% kwa $ 74.6bn. Wale faida ya $ 18bn walikuwa up 37%.

Ilikuwa ni ukuaji wa kasi baada ya miezi mitatu tangu Machi 2012, lakini basi Apple alikuwa nusu ukubwa ni sasa. Kama afisa wa Apple mkuu wa fedha, Luca Maestri, alisema: "Kwa kampuni ya kawaida yetu kwamba si ndogo feat."

Katy Huberty, mchambuzi katika Morgan Stanley, alisema ilikuwa "robo kwa vitabu vya kumbukumbu" na kuongezeka kwa bei ya hisa zake Lengo kutoka $126 kwa $133, ikionyesha yeye anaamini kuna ukuaji zaidi ya kuja. hisa za, ambayo aliruka 5% katika biashara baada ya masaa kufuatia matokeo Apple, imefungwa katika $117 Ijumaa.

Changamoto kubwa sasa, anasema Geoff Blaber, Makamu wa Rais wa utafiti kwa CCS Insight, ni kupata ukuaji nafasi ya pili. "Ulaya Magharibi na Amerika ya Kaskazini ni akikosa ulijaa: kuwa na chumba kwa ajili ya ukuaji Apple ina kutegemea kuchukua ukuaji kutoka [Google] vifaa Android mfumo wa uendeshaji makao,"Anasema. "big, kubwa, lengo ni juu ya China na kwa kiasi kidogo India. "

Wachambuzi waliohojiwa na Thomson Reuters kutarajia mapato Apple katika mwaka hadi Septemba kukua 22%, lakini ukuaji wa polepole kwa 4% katika mwaka uliofuata.

Je, kuna watu wengi zaidi wa kushoto ambao wanataka iPhone?

Apple kuuzwa rekodi 74.5m zinazotembea katika robo, 46% zaidi kuliko katika kipindi kama hicho mwaka uliotangulia. "Mahitaji ya iPhone imekuwa staggering, kuvunja matarajio yetu juu,"Mtendaji mkuu Tim Cook alisema. "Kiasi Hii ni ngumu kufahamika."

simu waliendelea kwa theluthi mbili ya mapato Apple, na zilikuwa na thamani ya zaidi ya Microsoft na Google ya karibuni mauzo ya robo pamoja.

"Inaonekana kama dunia nzima anataka iPhone,"Steven Milunovich, mchambuzi katika UBS, aliandika katika note kwa wawekezaji, ikisema kwamba walaji alikuwa alidai simu hata zaidi lakini Apple hakuweza kuzalisha yao kwa kasi ya kutosha hadi hivi karibuni.

Hata hivyo, Toni Sacconaghi, mchambuzi katika Bernstein Utafiti, anaonya kwamba ukuaji Apple inaweza kuwa pia kujitegemea juu ya mstari saba mwenye umri wa miaka bidhaa. "Bet juu ya Apple inazidi bet juu ya iPhone,"Sacconaghi anasema. "Habari njema ni, iphone ni kubwa. Habari mbaya ni, sasa hivi kwamba ni kuendesha gari juu ya 100% ya ukuaji wa mapato ya kampuni. "

wateja Kichina hununua mbili 6s iPhone mpya.
wateja Kichina hununua mbili 6s iPhone mpya. Picha: Johannes Eisele / AFP / Getty Images

Jinsi muhimu ni China?

sana: iPhone mauzo ni kuhamaki katika nchi. Apple radi uzalishaji wa ndani Xiaomi kuwa China kubwa smartphone muuzaji katika robo ya mwisho. mauzo Kichina, ambayo tulikuwa dhaifu kwa Apple mpaka iliyotolewa karibuni simu kubwa-screen, ulifikia $ 16.1bn, up 70% juu ya mwaka jana - wakati pia hakuwa na mpango wakitoa upatikanaji wa China Mkono wa makadirio 760 milioni wanachama.

Revenues in China are quickly catching up with the amount it collects in the whole of Europe, where sales were $17.2bn, up 20%.

“I was there [in China] right after the launch in October, and the excitement around the iPhone 6 na 6 Zaidi [ilikuwa] absolutely phenomenal,” Cook said during his call with analysts. “You can tell that we’re a big believer in China.”

Apple plans to double the number of its stores in greater China to 40 by mid-2016. “It’s an incredible market,"Alisema. “People love Apple products. And we are going to do our best to serve the market.”

Only a year earlier, in October 2013, Apple was the No 6 smartphone maker in China, trailing Xiaomi, Huawei, Lenovo, Samsung and Yulong, according to research firm Canalys.

“This is an amazing result, given that the average selling price of Apple’s handsets is nearly double those of its nearest competitors,” Canalys says. “While Chinese smartphone vendors are quickly gaining ground internationally, Apple has turned the tables on them in their home market.”

Can it afford for the Apple Watch to fail?

It has been five years since Apple launched its latest truly new product – the iPad – in 2010. To live up to its name for innovation, and diversify revenues away from reliance on the iPhone, Apple needs the Apple Watch to be an unqualified success.

Cook announced that the watch would go on sale in April, giving the company a boost in its third quarter when it will not benefit from Christmas or the Chinese new year, which will have helped the previous two quarters. “We’re making great progress in the development of it,"Alisema.

Apple describes the new product – often referred to as the iWatch, although it has not been officially named – as the “most personal device ever” and it is thought it will be able to monitor its wearer’s health as well as connect to an iPhone to provide several other functions. Cook said app developers had already impressed him with “some incredible innovation”.

Carolina Milanesi at Kantar Worldpanel ComTech says the watch will help Apple extend its sales into a much wider market. “They have been very smart in pushing it as jewellery and design rather than how technologically smart it is," anasema. “They are concentrating more on impressing the design and fashion world than the tech bloggers.

“I think this will be a much more irrational buy than with an iPad. With an iPad you wanted an iPad: this is going to be more of a fashion statement.”

She said the launch would benefit from the fashion and marketing skills of Angela Ahrendts, the former Burberry boss Apple hired last year on a $73m pay package as its head of retail.

Apple poached a string of big names from fashion and design to join its watch team, including Patrick Pruniaux, former vice-president of sales at Tag Heuer and former Yves Saint Laurent boss Paul Deneve, who is now Apple’s “vice president of special projects”.

Tim Cook unveils the Apple Watch in California last year.
Tim Cook unveils the Apple Watch in California last year. Picha: Zuma/Rex

Has Tim Cook emerged from the shadow of Steve Jobs?

Few chief executives were as intimately connected to their companies as Jobs was with Apple, and Cook faced a tough battle to win over investors who feared he lacked the co-founder’s vision and showmanship.

Activist investors David Einhorn and Carl Icahn have tried to interfere with Cook’s management, but he has stood his ground. He’s also shown his steely side by axing Scott Forstall, the former head of its iOS mobile operating system, over the failed launch of the Apple Maps app, as well as replacing the head of the company’s stores, John Browett – the former Dixons boss – after less than a year in the job.

Jobs and Cook are “such different personalities”, says Milanesi, who has followed Apple for more than a decade. “The reception under Cook has been very positive: he is very impressive in operations and managing the product chain.”

Milanesi says Cook has also done a lot to make Apple feel like a more approachable brand. “With Jobs it was aspirational but somewhat untouchable and distant," anasema. “It seems much more open and accessible under Tim, and that’s important as they want to extend the product range to a wide section of consumers.

“His big test will be the Apple Watch, as it’s the first product to be launched under his leadership.”

Will Apple’s huge cash pile become a liability?

Apple is making much more money than it can spend, to the extent that it has built up a $178bn cash pile. It added $23bn to the coffers in the last quarter and nearly all of it is banked overseas. Taking it back to the US to return it to shareholders would incur a big tax bill.

To appease investors Apple has been buying back shares, but by borrowing against the cash rather than using the capital. It bought back $45bn of shares last year but hasn’t made much of a dent in the cash. It has $35bn of debt.

Blaber says Apple needs to maintain a large surplus to give it “the muscle and flexibility to invest in new categories”. But its latest and biggest acquisition – Dr Dre’s headphones and streaming business Beats Electronics – cost it $3bn.

The size of Apple’s cash holding has attracted the attention of politicians. Cook has told Congress the company will eventually bring it back onshore, but only when there is a “dramatic simplification of the corporate tax code” including a “reasonable tax on foreign earnings that allows the free flow of capital back to the US”.

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