Njia Cooler kwa Kutathmini Brain Surgery Wagonjwa

A Cooler Way to Evaluate Brain Surgery Patients

mbinu mpya ya kutathmini wagonjwa neurosurgical hutoa ufahamu safi katika jinsi ubongo hutoa hotuba


Powered by Guardian.co.ukMakala hii yenye jina “njia ya baridi ili kutathmini wagonjwa upasuaji wa ubongo” iliandikwa na Mo Costandi, kwa theguardian.com siku ya Ijumaa Februari 26 2016 09.30 UTC

Watafiti katika Mkondoni. na maendeleo ya mbinu mpya na kuboreshwa kwa ramani na kulinda ubongo kazi kwa wagonjwa ufahamu kuhusu kufanyiwa upasuaji wa - na baridi ndogo, localized mikoa ya ubongo kwa kupinga kwa muda utendaji kazi wao na ramani maeneo inahitajika kwa ajili ya neno malezi na muda wa hotuba. Wao kuelezea njia zao, na kueleza jinsi kutumika kwa kuchunguza ubongo taratibu msingi uzalishaji wa lugha amesema, katika utafiti mpya tu kuchapishwa katika jarida neuron.

Hadithi kuhusu watu ambao kubaki ari wakati upasuaji wa ubongo kuonekana mara kwa mara katika vyombo vya habari. Katika 2008, kwa mfano, habari maduka mbalimbali taarifa kwamba hadithi Bluegrass mwanamuziki Eddie Adcock si tu alibakia fahamu, lakini pia alicheza ugombo yake, wakati wa operesheni mitatu na nusu ya kutibu mkono tetemeko. Na Desemba mwaka jana, kulikuwa na taarifa hiyo kuhusu Spanish jazz mwanamuziki Carlos Aguilera, ambao alicheza saksafoni yake katika operesheni ya saa 12 ili kuondoa uvimbe kwenye ubongo.

taratibu hizo ni mara nyingi kama ilivyoelezwa "kushangaza,"" Mapinduzi,"na, wakati mwingine, "Miujiza." Kwa kweli, upasuaji wamekuwa wakifanya kazi juu ya akili ya wagonjwa fahamu kwa karibu miaka mia moja: Njia ilitengenezwa katika miaka ya 1920 na pioneering neurosurgeon Canada Wilder Penfield, kama njia ya kuuweka usiokuwa wa kawaida ubongo tishu na kusababisha kifafa kifafa.

Penfield kutumika electrodes kuchochea uso wa bongo wagonjwa wake ', na kwa makusudi naendelea yao ari wakati wa upasuaji ili waweze kutoa taarifa madhara ya kusisimua nyuma yake. Kwa kuchochea maeneo ya karibu na tishu usiokuwa wa kawaida, angeweza kutambua tishu na kusababisha seizures wakati pia kuamua ambayo ya maeneo ya jirani ni muhimu kwa ajili ya kazi muhimu kama hotuba na harakati. Kwa njia hii, angeweza kuondoa tishu usiokuwa wa kawaida bila ya kusababisha uharibifu wowote dhamana.

Njia Penfield ya kusisimua cortical bado hutumiwa sana leo lakini, kiasi fulani hazijaingizwa, unaweza yenyewe kusababisha kifafa kifafa. mbinu mpya hubeba hakuna hatari kama. zilizotengenezwa na Michael Long ya New York Chuo Kikuu cha Langone Medical Center na wenzake, hujenga juu ya njia ya awali kwamba kutumika probes baridi kujifunza ubongo circuitry kuwajibika kwa uzalishaji wimbo katika finches pundamilia.

Muda mrefu na wenzake walitumia kifaa sawa baridi juu ya 16 wagonjwa kuwa tathmini kwa ajili ya shughuli neurosurgical kutibu sugu yao kifafa. Na wagonjwa chini ya anesthetic mitaa, watafiti walitumia kifaa na baridi 42 mikoa Diskret ubongo, yote ambayo yamekuwa awali wanaohusishwa katika uzalishaji hotuba, na kuhusu 10°C kila. Wakati huo huo, wagonjwa waliombwa wanasoma siku za wiki, au rahisi kamba ya idadi, ili kazi zao hotuba inaweza kuwa tathmini wakati kila mkoa alikuwa kilichopozwa.

Baridi interrupts shughuli za mkononi, na katika baadhi ya kesi, watafiti wamegundua kwamba ni waliingilia uwezo wagonjwa 'kusema, kupunguza na blurring hotuba yao. Athari hii ulikuwa wa muda tu, however – brain function returned to normal immediately after the cooling device was removed from the brain, and all 16 patients subsequently recovered from their operations without any undesired side effects or other complications.

The results confirm earlier findings that the brain areas involved in speech production are mostly confined to the left hemisphere, and they also provide new insights into how the brain produces speech. Specifically, cooling a specific part of the left motor cortex altered the quality of the patients’ speech, whereas cooling of Broca’s Area in the left temporal lobe altered the timing of their speech.

These results shows that the motor cortex directs the muscle movements in the lips and tongue that are required for articulating speech, whereas Broca’s Area is needed for executing these movements in their proper sequence.

“This study confirms that cooling is a safe and effective means of protecting important brain centers during neurosurgery," anasema Long. "[ni] also represent[s] a major advance in the understanding of the roles played by the areas of the brain that enable us to form words.”

Reference

Long, M. A., et al. (2016). Functional Segregation of Cortical Regions Underlying Speech Timing and Articulation. neuron 89: 1–7. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.01.032 [Abstract]

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