Alkohol "... provokes kahayang, tapi nyokot jauh prestasi "ceuk Shakespeare, tapi ieu manéhna katuhu? Ieu téh kapercayaan umum nu alkohol mantuan urang leungit inhibitions urang oge bisa meta salaku hiji aphrodisiac (sakapeung!). Tapi urang teu mindeng panginten salaku enhancer kinerja di pangkeng nu. I nujul Anjeun pikeun "brewers droop", umur heubeul nickname keur disfungsi erectile samentara ngainduksi ku alkohol.
Pamanggih ngeunaan teuing alkohol salaku killer markisa geus dijieun cadangana ku bukti anecdotal jeung ilmiah, tapi ieu teu sigana dampen nu karesep media jeung jadi hiji enhancer libido. Aya wae bebeneran balik anggapan yen sababaraha pints bener bisa nyieun Anjeun lover hade atawa ieu ngan sejen "seksi" carita élmu?
Aya signifikan awak panalungtikan nu nunjukkeun alkohol ieu pakait jeung response seksual heightened (ngaronjat gairah jeung orgasme ditingkatkeun) jeung dilogorkeunnana inhibitions seksual. sajarahna, alkohol ogé ngabogaan pakaitna lila jeung roman jeung sex dina watesan pariwara. Di sisi anu sanésna, alkohol numbu kalawan kanaékan paripolah seksual picilakaeun, nu bisa ngahasilkeun kakandungan nu teu dihoyongkeun jeung kasakit dikirimkeun seksual. Dibikeun ieu efek nentang, naha artikel média condong fokus dina pakaitna positif antara alkohol jeung sex, jeung naon ngalakukeun studi panalungtikan balik carita media ngabejaan urang?
A anyar carita dina Independent dilaporkeun dina klaim dijieun ku buku anyar disebut "The Kawin Sex Solusi". ahli Sex Dr Kat Van Kirk percaya yén nginum bir bisa ngakibatkeun opat perbaikan béda dina pangalaman seksual keur lalaki: (1) éjakulasi nyangsang, (2) ditingkatkeun libido sarta erections leuwih sengit, (3) ngaronjat stamina seksual jeung (4) nu bir bisa mantuan "kaséhatan Anjeun sakabéh" sahingga make kurang "sluggish di sex". Lucuna, ngan titik ka nuduhkeun artikel panalungtikan peer reviewed nyaeta katilu – yén "alkohol ngaronjatkeun stamina seksual".
A ulikan diterbitkeun dina Éropa Journal of Epidemiology laporan dina meta-analysis of 13 studi nempo risiko cardiovascular jeung konsumsi bir. Papanggihan nyarankeun kurva J ngawangun, suggesting hiji risiko ngurangan panyakit cardiovascular dina maranéhanana anu nginum 55g bir poé atawa kurang. Kadé ka dicatet yén ulikan tumaros teu sabenerna ngukur stamina seksual, tinimbang ngurangan risiko cardiovascular dicandak salaku proxy a. Oge, teu pinuh jelas naon "gram alkohol" hartina dieu. Lamun ukur ngagambarkeun étanol murni, 55g bir sarua jeung kira-kira 7 unit atawa 3 satengah pints tina cukup lemah bir per poé. Ieu jigana kawas loba alkohol jadi dikonsumsi unggal poé!
Artikel dina The Telegraf dilaporkeun dina 2009 diajar dilakukeun ku Australia sacara Western Keogh Institute for Research Médis. Ulikan ieu nalungtik dampak pamakean alkohol dina disfungsi erectile jalu. Artikel Telegraph teu nyadiakeun link ka artikel peer reviewed, but I found a study on this published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine. It collected information from 1,580 men on erectile function, alcohol, and tobacco use. The Telegraph reported that the men who drank a moderate amount of alcohol reported 30% fewer erectile problems than non-drinkers. The article interprets this finding as a “favourable association” between moderate drinkers and erectile function.
The authors of the research paper indicate that none of the reported associations between drinking status and erectile function were “statistically significant” until cardiovascular disease and smoking status were controlled for in analyses. It is also important to remember that the study used self-report measures of alcohol consumption and erectile dysfunction, meaning any associations observed are dependent on the ability and willingness of participants to accurately report their alcohol use and erectile problems
A third study reported in The Independent this year looked at whether alcohol can boost women’s sex drives. The study showed that following moderate alcohol consumption, levels of testosterone increased in women, but not men. This might be evidence of alcohol increasing the libido of women via a temporary surge in the male sex hormone. Despite being reported in The Independent this year, the research in question appears to come from a study published in Nature ku Alko (a large Finnish alcohol retailer) dina 1994.
The research itself is a one-page report on an experimental study where men and women were given either an alcoholic beverage or a non-alcoholic juice, and hormone levels were measured (although it is not clear how). When controlling for contraceptive use and menstrual cycle (which affects hormone levels) alcohol increased testosterone compared with the placebo in women, but not men.
There are a number of methodological questions that cannot be answered from the information in this short report – did the participants know if they were receiving an alcoholic or placebo beverage? In what conditions were participants tested? Tapi, for me the biggest question is why would the media report on a study conducted over 20 sababaraha taun ka pengker, which is a considerable amount of time in the fast moving world of scientific research?
Lucuna, the publication of the article in The Independent coincided with a press release for a new vodka by a company called Alko-plus. (It is not clear whether this company is affiliated with Alko). In the press release, the vodka is specifically aimed at women, with claims made regarding the capability of alcohol to increase female libido: “Hey Gals: Put New Meaning Into Your July 4th Fireworks; Alko-Plus Creates ‘Lust Vodka’ that it says Increases Female Sexual Desire”.
Reviewing these articles and the corresponding research studies has made me think about the issues involved in studying sex and alcohol and in reporting and interpreting research findings. There are many complex individual differences in the psychological and physiological factors that influence the response to both sex and alcohol. The association between sex and alcohol is dependent upon alcohol dosage, alcohol expectancy, and measurement of alcohol and sexual behaviour.
In terms of dose, there may be an optimal amount of alcohol to induce these positive effects on sexual arousal or performance. Once past that threshold the effects may be more negative. This notion is supported by the biphasic nature of alcohol, with stimulant effects as blood alcohol concentration increases, but depressant effects as it decreases again.
Alcohol expectancy can also impact sexual behaviour during intoxication. Simply believing that drinking alcohol increases sexual arousal may lead to actual arousal during intoxication. Expectancies about alcohol consumption are a key element of research examining the effects of alcohol on any behaviour. It is important that research determines the impact of both the direct pharmacological effects and expectation.
tungtungna, the way alcohol use is measured can impact on the association with sexual behaviour. The administration of alcohol in an experimental study versus self-report of alcohol use by drinkers is likely to yield different study findings. Furthermore, it is very difficult to directly measure sexual behaviour. Most studies have to rely on self-report of sexual arousal and performance or use proxy measures such as cardiovascular and physiological function.
Accurate representation of research evidence on alcohol and sex may not yield a “sexy” headline. Tapi, clear and honest reporting of research findings and at least a link to the original published study should allow the reader to make up their own mind when faced with the scientific evidence.
In this case alcohol’s ability to increase prowess in the bedroom does not appear to be as straightforward as presented in the media. The link between sex and alcohol is a complex one and best interpreted when a clear and balanced picture is available, rather than a “sexed-up” story.
Dr Sally Adams is a lecturer in health psychology at the University of Bath. Her research examines the cognitive and behavioural mechanisms underlying alcohol and tobacco use. Find her on Twitter @SallyScientist
guardian.co.uk © wali News & Media Limited 2010