Powered by Guardian.co.ukArtikel ieu judulna “Apel: naon anu anjeun pigawé sanggeus jadi pausahaan paling nguntungkeun di dunya?” ieu ditulis ku Rupert Neate di New York, pikeun panitén dina Saptu 31st January 2015 15.01 UTC

lamun Apple jadi pausahaan paling nguntungkeun dina sajarah minggu pamungkas, analis boro bisa ngandung pikagumbiraeun maranéhanana.

"Stunning", "Beredar", "A monster" éta sababaraha réaksi nu analis 'ka angka mintonkeun sungut Silicon Valley geus dijieun $ 18bn (£ 12bn) di kakara tilu bulan - ku ngajual 34,000 iPhones jam kira-kira jam ti Oktober nepi ka Désémber. Ayeuna geus $ 178bn tunai di bank.

Tapi sanggeus kabéh ririweuhan nu, patarosan mimiti. Keur pausahaan nu geus datang balik ti brink tina bangkrut kurang ti 20 sababaraha taun ka pengker, sabaraha lila bisa warta alus terus? Di dieu aya genep patarosan gedé nyanghareup kasuksésan perusahaan pangbadagna di dunya.

finansial, ieu puncak nu?

Apple ieu 90 poé jauh ti bangkrut lamun Steve Jobs rejoined dina 1997- manéhna saterusna wangsit - tapi Apple ayeuna nuju ka downplay kasuksésan finansial anak dihareupeun announcements kauntungan quarterly guna kaget investor jeung analis.

kauntungan ieu saparapat sacara éta dina skala séjén, sanajan. Penjualan di tilu bulan ka ahir Désémber éta nepi 30% ka $ 74.6bn. Maranéhanana kauntungan tina $ 18bn éta nepi 37%.

Ieu tumuwuhna quarterly panggancangna saprak Maret 2012, tapi lajeng Apple ieu satengah ukuran ayeuna. Salaku perwira kapala finansial Apple sacara, Luca Maestri, ceuk: "Keur pausahaan ukuran urang anu teu karya leutik."

Katy Huberty, an analis di Morgan Stanley, ceuk ieu "saparapat pikeun buku catetan" jeung ngaronjat target harga babagi nya ti $126 ka $133, nunjukkeun manéhna percaya aya leuwih tumuwuhna datang. nu biasa, nu ucul 5% di dagang sanggeus-jam di handap ieu hasil Apple sacara, ditutup di $117 dinten Jumaah.

Nu tangtangan gedé ayeuna, nyebutkeun Geoff Blaber, wakil-présidén panalungtikan pikeun CCS wawasan, pikeun manggihan kasempetan tumuwuh gigireun. "Éropa Kulon jeung kalér Amérika anu jadi jenuh: boga kamar pikeun tumuwuh Apple geus ngandelkeun nyokot tumuwuh ti [Google] alat sistem operasi Android dumasar,"Manéhna nyebutkeun. "The gedé, gede, fokus nyaéta dina China jeung ka extent Lesser India. "

Analis ngajajal ku Thomson Reuters nyangka sharing Apple di taun ka September tumuwuh 22%, tapi tumuwuh ka ngalambatkeun ka 4% dina taun di handap ieu.

Aya loba jelema kenca anu hayang an iPhone?

Apple dijual rékaman 74.5m héndsét di suku, 46% leuwih ti dina periode sarua taun saméméhna. "Paménta for iPhone geus staggering, shattering ekspektasi urang luhur,"Ceuk kapala eksekutif Tim Cook. "Volume Ieu hésé ngarti."

Telepon accounted pikeun dua per tilu sharing Apple sacara, jeung éta patut leuwih ti Microsoft jeung penjualan quarterly panganyarna Google digabungkeun.

"Jigana kawas sakabeh dunya hayang an iPhone,"Steven Milunovich, an analis di KUBS, nulis dina catetan pikeun investor, nunjukkeun ayana kaluar nu pamakéna geus nungtut telepon komo leuwih tapi Apple teu bisa ngahasilkeun maranehna cukup gancang nepi ka ayeuna.

Tapi, Toni Sacconaghi, an analis di Research Bernstein, cautions nu tumuwuh Apple sacara teuing meureun reliant dina garis produk tujuh taun heubeul. "A bet dina Apple téh beuki bet dina iPhone,"Nyebutkeun Sacconaghi. "The warta hade, iPhones nu gede. Warta bad nyaeta, ayeuna nu bakal nyetir leuwih 100% tina tumuwuhna sharing pausahaan. "

A customer Cina mundut dua 6s iPhone anyar.
A customer Cina mundut dua 6s iPhone anyar. Photograph: Johannes Eisele / AFP / Getty Images

Kumaha penting nyaéta China?

pisan: penjualan iPhone nu exploding di nagara. Apple overtook produser lokal Xiaomi jadi seller smartphone pangbadagna China di kuartal pamungkas. penjualan Cina, nu geus lemah pikeun Apple nepika ngarilis telepon layar badag panganyarna, datang dina di $ 16.1bn, ka luhur 70% dina taun ka tukang - lamun ogé teu boga deal mere eta aksés ka China Mobile sacara ditaksir 760 sajuta palanggan.

Revenues di Cina nu gancang catching nepi ka jumlah eta ngumpulkeun dina sakabeh Éropa, mana penjualan éta $ 17.2bn, ka luhur 20%.

"Abdi kantos di dinya [di Cina] katuhu sanggeus peluncuran dina Oktober, jeung pikagumbiraeun kira-kira iPhone 6 jeung 6 Tambih Deui [ieu] leres pisan fenomenal,"Ceuk Cook salila telepon-Na jeung analis. "Anjeun tiasa ngabejaan urang geus a pangagem gedé di Cina."

Apple ngarencanakeun ganda jumlah toko anak di Cina gede ka 40 ku pertengahan 2016. "Ieu hiji pasar luar biasa,"Cenahna. "Jalma cinta produk Apple. Sarta urang bade ngalakukeun pangalusna urang ngawula pasar. "

Ngan taun saméméhna, dina Oktober 2013, Apple ieu No 6 maker smartphone di Cina, labuh Xiaomi, Huawei, Lenovo, Samsung jeung Yulong, nurutkeun sungut panalungtikan Canalys.

"Ieu mangrupakeun hasil endah pisan, nunjukkeun yen harga jual rata-rata héndsét Apple nyaéta ampir ganda maranéhanana pesaing anak pangdeukeutna,"Nyebutkeun Canalys. "Sedengkeun ngical smartphone Cina nu gancang gaining taneuh internasional, Apple geus ngahurungkeun tabel dina eta di pasar imah maranéhanana. "

Bisa eta mampuh pikeun Apple Watch gagal?

Geus lima taun saprak Apple dibuka produk sabenerna anyar panganyarna anak - iPad - di 2010. Pikeun hirup nepi ka ngaran anak pikeun inovasi, jeung diversify revenues jauh ti reliance dina iPhone, Apple perlu nu Apple Watch jadi sukses teu minuhan sarat.

Cook ngumumkeun yén lalajo bakal balik diobral di April, méré pausahaan hiji dorongan dina kuartal katilu anak lamun teu bakal nguntungkeun ti Christmas atawa taun anyar Cina, which will have helped the previous two quarters. “We’re making great progress in the development of it,"Cenahna.

Apple describes the new product – often referred to as the iWatch, although it has not been officially named – as the “most personal device ever” and it is thought it will be able to monitor its wearer’s health as well as connect to an iPhone to provide several other functions. Cook said app developers had already impressed him with “some incredible innovation”.

Carolina Milanesi at Kantar Worldpanel ComTech says the watch will help Apple extend its sales into a much wider market. “They have been very smart in pushing it as jewellery and design rather than how technologically smart it is," manéhna nyebutkeun. “They are concentrating more on impressing the design and fashion world than the tech bloggers.

“I think this will be a much more irrational buy than with an iPad. With an iPad you wanted an iPad: this is going to be more of a fashion statement.”

She said the launch would benefit from the fashion and marketing skills of Angela Ahrendts, the former Burberry boss Apple hired last year on a $73m pay package as its head of retail.

Apple poached a string of big names from fashion and design to join its watch team, including Patrick Pruniaux, former vice-president of sales at Tag Heuer and former Yves Saint Laurent boss Paul Deneve, who is now Apple’s “vice president of special projects”.

Tim Cook unveils the Apple Watch in California last year.
Tim Cook unveils the Apple Watch in California last year. Photograph: Zuma / Rex

Geus Tim Cook mecenghul ti kalangkang tina Steve Jobs?

Sababaraha executives kapala anu salaku intimately nyambung ka pausahaan maranéhanana salaku Jobs ieu jeung Apple, jeung Cook Nyanghareupan perang tangguh meunang leuwih investor anu takwa manéhna lacked visi jeung showmanship ko-pangadeg sacara.

investor aktivis David Einhorn jeung Carl Icahn kudu diusahakeun ngaganggu jeung manajemén Cook sacara, tapi manéhna geus nangtung taneuh-Na. Manéhna ogé dipidangkeun sisi steely-Na ku axing Scott Forstall, urut kapala sistem operasi mobile ios anak, leuwih peluncuran gagal tina aplikasi Apple Maps, ogé ngaganti sirah toko parusahaan, John Browett - urut Dixons boss - sanggeus kurang ti sataun di pakasaban.

Jobs jeung Cook aya "personalities beda saperti", nyebutkeun Milanesi, who has followed Apple for more than a decade. “The reception under Cook has been very positive: he is very impressive in operations and managing the product chain.”

Milanesi says Cook has also done a lot to make Apple feel like a more approachable brand. “With Jobs it was aspirational but somewhat untouchable and distant," manéhna nyebutkeun. “It seems much more open and accessible under Tim, and that’s important as they want to extend the product range to a wide section of consumers.

“His big test will be the Apple Watch, as it’s the first product to be launched under his leadership.”

Will Apple’s huge cash pile become a liability?

Apple is making much more money than it can spend, to the extent that it has built up a $178bn cash pile. It added $23bn to the coffers in the last quarter and nearly all of it is banked overseas. Taking it back to the US to return it to shareholders would incur a big tax bill.

To appease investors Apple has been buying back shares, but by borrowing against the cash rather than using the capital. It bought back $45bn of shares last year but hasn’t made much of a dent in the cash. It has $35bn of debt.

Blaber says Apple needs to maintain a large surplus to give it “the muscle and flexibility to invest in new categories”. But its latest and biggest acquisition – Dr Dre’s headphones and streaming business Beats Electronics – cost it $3bn.

The size of Apple’s cash holding has attracted the attention of politicians. Cook has told Congress the company will eventually bring it back onshore, but only when there is a “dramatic simplification of the corporate tax code” including a “reasonable tax on foreign earnings that allows the free flow of capital back to the US”.

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