From waitstaff ho hlokomela bo-mphato'a le bafuputsi tsa semolao, bokamoso ba mosebeletsi mochine mona. Empa moo e le hore tlohela batho
Sehlooho sena se titled “Welcome to basebetsi roboto e thehiloeng: o tla mosebetsi oa hao e be itirisang tsa haholo?” e ngotsoe ke Julia Carrie Wong a San Francisco, Tsa moshebelli ka Moqebelo bo19 la lilemo March 2016 14.24 UTC
"Ho hloekileng boselamose,"Eatsa litšepiso.
Qalong reschorenteng San Francisco o itirisang tsa ka botlalo, dijo tse phuthetsweng hlaha ka cubbies khalase e nyenyane, feela 90 metsotsoana ka mor'a bareki laela 'me le ele ka la lerako-mounted iPads. Ho phihlelo ea motho-ka tlaase ho moo - ha ho waitstaff, ha ho cashier, ha ho motho ea ho fumana taelo ea hao e fosahetseng 'me ha ho e mong ho KELETSO.
E boetse e 's salon qhekella.
motsotsoana pele ho ja lijo tsa hlaha, ea bonaletsa ne a bonahatse skrineng tseo shebaneng ea cubbies tsoela batsho bakeng metsotsoana e seng mekae e ka 'na ha u heli! lehlakoreng Ea jang o.
Eatsa e-s'o fihlellwa tjhelete yohle seba. khampani lumela e sebelisang ha karoloana e nyane kichineng basebetsi ba nkang, le mosebeletsi e mong o teng kahara pel'a ntlo, araba lipotso mabapi le hore na ho laela le dodging lipotso mabapi le ho etsahalang ka mor'a lerako la cubbies boselamose. ("Eng kapa eng u ka inahanela,"O ile a teases.)
Empa reschorente ea, e leng ile a bula ka August 'me o se a ntse a eketsoa ho Los Angeles, e fana ka tlhase ea ho itima lijo ka atamela ntho ea sebele, moo dihlopha eohle ea mesebetsi eo e kileng profinseng khethehileng ea batho e ka finyella sebetsa ka potlako, theko e tlaase, le ho feta ho tshepahala ka mechine.
Nako e tlang mona, le ho thehwa ha motho e mong ho sireletsehile.
"Kea bona boima ho hloka mosebetsi pele ho fellang teng jwalo ka liroboto phetohelo nka tšoara,"O ile a re Noel Sharkey, eo e leng moprofesa ea behileng meja fatse oa liroboto le bohlale maiketsetso Univesithing ea Sheffield ba UK. Sharkey sa tsoa qala ho ea Foundation bakeng liroboto Boikarabelo ho re thusa ho qoba "bokgoni ba societal le boitshwaro likotsi" ho tloha kopo atile oa liroboto tse ikemetseng.
Ha ho letho le ka ho khetheha e ncha ka alamo Sharkey e brase. A 2013, Oxford litsebi Carl Benedikt Frey le Michael A Osborne ile a lemosa hore hoo e ka bang 47% ea mesebetsi ka kakaretso US ne kotsing ea computerization, a Analysis eo Ranked 702 mesebetsi ke monyetla oa bona oa ho felisoa.
Telemarketers, babalamatlotlo, balaola lipapali, bangoli tsa semolao, 'me cashiers ile a fumanoa a le har'a ka ho fetisisa ka etsahala hore ebe ho lahleheloa ke mesebetsi ea bona, ha a ntse a lingaka, mesuoe sekolong sa bana, liakhente, baetsi ba litšoantšo, 'me baruti ba lula batla li sireletsehile.
A Bokamoso ba mesebetsi, e hatisitsoeng ka 2015, bangodi Richard Susskind le mora oa hae, Daniel Susskind, pheha khang ea hore esita le ba diprofesheneng tsa moetlo tla fokotseha 'me nkeloa sebaka ke "litsamaiso ho ntse nang le bokhoni".
The Susskinds hloka ha e sa sebelise nakong e tlang oa tsitsipano. Last lehlabula e thuso ya semolao sesebelisoa se bitsoang Ross o ile a qala, e leng sebedisa IBM a artificially bohlale bartolomeo-khomphuteng ya Watson ho nka ka lebaka la ho mosebetsi oa ho etsa lipatlisiso tsa semolao.
Ross Intelligence sebedisana mothehi le CEO Andrew Arruda pheha khang ea hore sesebelisoa sa, e leng ho ka etsa mosebetsi o neng o kile a nka lihora tse ngata ka taba ea ho metsotswana, ha a le kotsi ya mesebetsi ho tloha molaong kgolo lifeme khaotsa ho tshupomolato ka lihora tse ile a qeta ka etsa lipatlisiso nakong ea fetoha ha moruo Great. O ile a boela a bolela hore Ross ne a tla "eketsa mekhoa ea ho fumana toka 'ka ho etsa boemedi tsa semolao e fumanehe bakeng sa ho 80% ea Maamerika a ke keng a khona.
Leha ho le joalo, Ross o etsa mosebetsi oa hore batho ba li kile leshwa ya dollar ho tloha holimo ho phetha.
Ka labobeli, ea Financial Times tlaleha ka Analysis ka Deloitte e fumanoang hore UK ne a se a lahlehetsoe ke 31,000 management jobs in indasteri ea molao ea ho itirise ka, 'me thulametse hore e mong 114,000 sa jobs ne e tla ba e latelang.
It’s all happening very fast. A 2013, MIT engineering professor John Leonard told the MIT Technology Review that “robots simply replacing humans” would not happen in his lifetime. “The semi-autonomous taxi will still have a driver,” he argued. kajeno, Google’s autonomous cars have traveled more than 1m miles on public streets, and self-driving taxis seem all but inevitable.
Sharkey expects that the service industry will be particularly hard hit. He estimates that by 2018 there will be 35 million service robots “at work”.
A bartending robot named “Monsieur” is already on the market. A hardware store in San Jose, California has a retail associate robot named “Oshbot.” The UK salad bar chain Tossed reportedly announced this month that two outlets in London would have self-service kiosks instead of cashiers. Ka Labone, Domino’s Australia unveiled a pizza delivery robot in Brisbane.
Some companies seem sensitive to the criticism that they might be taking away people’s jobs.
“There’s excitement from the tech press, but we’re also starting to see some negative threads about it being terrifying, ready to take humans’ jobs,” wrote one Google employee in internal emails obtained by Bloomberg.
Micah Green, the founder of Maidbot, a company building robots to clean hotel rooms, emphasizes that “at this stage” the company’s products are “an augmentation, not replacement” of housekeepers.
Other inventors make no bones about their job-replacing intentions.
Just a few miles away from Eatsa another San Francisco startup, Momentum Machines, is building robots that could replace the minions behind the curtain. A 2012, the company debuted a fully automated hamburger making machine, and its website boasts that it has moved on to salads, sandwiches, and “many other multi-ingredient foods”.
“Our device isn’t meant to make employees more efficient,” co-founder Alexandros Vardakostas told Xconomy. “It’s meant to completely obviate them.”
Mabu, the robot friend
A 2014, Stowe Boyd, a self-described post-futurist, threw down the gauntlet. “The central question of 2025 will be: What are people for in a world that does not need their labor, and where only a minority are needed to guide the ‘bot-based economy?’” he asked in a Pew Research Center report.
The answer may lie in the kinds of activities that are frequently unpaid: care work traditionally assigned to women. Computers and robots may be better than humans at manual labor, paperwork, and even logic, but they do not feel, and they cannot empathize.
Bonyane, not really.
In a basement office in San Francisco’s Dogpatch neighborhood, Dr Cory Kidd is building a robot whose sole job is to motivate its owners into positive behavioral changes.
Mabu is a desk lamp-sized robot who carries a touchpad on her belly. As a “personal healthcare companion”, she is intended for patients managing chronic diseases. With wide green eyes and pale yellow skin, she could be one of the personified feelings in the Pixar movie Inside Out. And feelings are what she is all about.
For a robot, Mabu doesn’t do anything particularly impressive. She just sits on your bedside table, waking up once or twice a day to hold a conversation with her owner.
Those conversations, designed with input from behavioral psychologists and a former Hollywood screenwriter and made possible by artificial intelligence that helps Mabu adapt to an individual’s personality and interests, are intended to “leverage the patient’s own motivation” to follow their treatment plans.
Mabu is subtly female in voice and in appearance, a choice Kidd says is based on research that, stereotypically, “women are seen as more helpful and caring”.
Does Mabu care for us? She is plastic, but when Kidd tells her that he does not feel that great, she responds, “You’re carrying a lot on your shoulders,” and dips her head in a gesture that looks like empathy.
Do we care for Mabu? Kidd says that when he has collected her from patients after trials, many have objected. “They say, ‘She’s like a member of the family.’”
She can provide a certain kind of emotional and psychological support that humans might not be able to accomplish effectively. Imagine your partner asking you every single day whether you have taken your pill, and then imagine how long they would remain your partner. (This is why Kidd says, “we’re not replacing any human. I can’t think of a person who would be a healthcare companion.”)
But if Mabu can be better at being human than humans can, what is left for us?
Perhaps only the bearing and rearing of new humans. This is where Noel Sharkey draws the line. A 2008, Sharkey published The Ethical Frontiers of Robotics in the journal Saense, a paper in which he warned against the development of “child-minding robots” already taking place in Japan and South Korea.
Sharkey has continued to study developments in the field of nanny robots, including some that are already available, such as the “Childcare Robot PaPeRo” from Japan’s Nippon Electric Company (NEC).
“We have already seen the overuse of robots in looking after children,” Sharkey says. “From our detailed analysis of the possibility of long term care of children by robots, we can expect a number of severe attachment disorders that could reap havoc in our society.”
It’s all of our job to prevent that.
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