Lintho tsohle li tsamaea U Lokela ho Tseba ka bang Maqhubu a khoheli

Everything You Need to Know about Gravitational Waves

Har'a menyenyetsi ea hore e sheba US tla tsebahatsa ka Labone e le hore ba 'nile ba lemoha bopaki ba maqhubu a khoheli, mona 's ea boitsebiso bo senotlolo


Tsamaisoa ka Guardian.co.ukSehlooho sena se titled “Shebella spacetime ena: khoheli tsokoang sibolloa lebeletsoe” e ngotsoe ke Ian Sample Science mohlophisi, etsoe The Guardian ka Labobeli la bo9 February 2016 15.59 UTC

A phenyekolla ka lilemo tse mashome-e telele bakeng sa maqhubu a khoheli lebeletsoe ho felisa ka tlhōlo bekeng ena ha bo-rasaense ba bolela ba ba sibolotse maqhubu a metsi a ka lesela la spacetime, mohlomong a bōpa ke thulana oa bana ba babeli masoba a maholohali batsho tsamaea ka haufi le ka lebelo la leseli.

First bolela esale pele ka ho Einstein, 'me generated ke liketsahalo fetisisa ka tlokotsi a bokahohleng bo hlophisehileng ea, maqhubu a khoheli otlolla le pepeta sebaka le lintho tsohle tsa ka hare ho eona ha ba ntse ba hasana ka mose bokahohle. sibolloa bona, haeba tiisa, Ke mekhoa e itseng ea ho fumana e Nobel prise.

Bo-rasaense ba tsongoa matšoao a maqhubu ka lilemo tse mashome, empa ho fihlela joale, boiteko ba bona ba 'nile ba khathatsehe ka matshwao a medumo tsa bohata le liletsa tse neng li sa falimehela ho lekaneng ho lemoha maqhubu nakong eo ba ba ba fihla Earth.

E lebeletsoe ho fetola ka Labone, ha fisiks ka US senola ya data bona tsa morao-rao ho tswa ho teko e tsejoang e le LIGO, kapa ea sheba Advanced Laser Interferometer khoheli-tsokoang. Thimi na mechine ea Washington le Louisiana e ka letheba feta maqhubu a khoheli dessyecik liphetoho minuscule le bolelele ba hlahisa tse peli liphaephe 4km-nako e telele.

At sebokeng se tobetsa Washington, LIGO bo-rasaense ba ka ha ho lebeletswe ho senola e hlakileng, ferekanye khoheli tsokoang pontšo. E ka 'na ba tsoa mekoting tse peli se seholo se batsho, e mong 29 times more massive than the sun, the other 36 times more massive, spiralling around each other and finally crashing together to form a new black hole 62 times the mass of the sun. For all its heft, the new body may be no more than 200 miles wide.

The missing massequivalent to that of three suns, or six trillion trillion kilotonneswas converted into energy and released as the gravitational waves LIGO is believed to have detected.

“People are hugely excited. The rumour is that it’s a whopping big signal, in other words, it’s unambiguous, and that is fantastic,” said Pedro Ferreira, professor of astrophysics at Oxford University, and author of the 2014 buka, The Perfect Theory: a century of geniuses and the battle over general relativity.

When Einstein published his theory of general relativity in 1915, he changed forever how scientists view the universe. The theory showed that mass makes spacetime curve, an effect that has a multitude of implications. e mong, that light from distant stars will bend around the sun, was confirmed by Arthur Eddington during the solar eclipse of 1919.

The detection of gravitational waves would tick off the last major prediction of general relativity. It would demonstrate that the equations drawn up by Einstein, who refused to believe in black holes himself, hold true in what ranks as the most extreme realm of physics.

But there is more to the discovery of gravitational waves than simply proving they exist. If the LIGO signal is as strong as rumours suggest, new instruments could be built to detect gravity waves from colliding black holes and other hugely energetic events all over the universe.

“It would be like having a telescope that, instead of looking at objects in the electromagnetic spectrum, is looking at them with gravitational waves,” said Ferreira. “We could see things in a completely different way. It would be very blurred visiongravitational waves are not good at pinpointing objectsbut they would help us understand what happens when black holes hs fall into one another.”

“The fact is whenever we’ve looked at the universe in new ways, with x-rays, with radio waves, we’ve discovered incredible stuff, exotica. So this is going to open up a new window, and for sure we’ll discover bizarre stuff,"O ile a phaella.

Rumours that the LIGO team had detected gravitational waves have been circulating in the astrophysics community for months. empa many researchers were sceptical and feared the rumours might have been sparked by synthetic signals which are added to the data to test the team’s analytical procedures.

“After all the rumours over the past few months I certainly expect them to announce a detection at this point,” said Alberto Sesana, a researcher at the University of Birmingham’s Gravitational Wave Group. “We have to bear in mind that LIGO is one experiment and the only one that can detect such sources. If they claim to have detected gravitational waves, it cannot be confirmed by another instrument, and that is always an issue. But they have been very cautious in doing this properly. I’m confident they have clear and strong evidence for it.”

There is a chance a signal will be announced from another source, such as a pair of neutron stars spinning around one another, or a neutron star falling into a black hole. But such cosmic events would be expected to produce weaker signals than the large spike scientists anticipate the LIGO team to reveal.

Scientists have declared the discovery of gravitational waves before only to have their hopes dashed. A 2014, researchers on an experiment called Bicep2 claimed to have found evidence for gravitational waves from the big bang, but further analysis by other groups showed that the signals they picked up could be entirely explained by space dust interfering with their measurements.

Ulrich Sperhake, a theorist at Cambridge University who studies how gravitational waves are generated by black holes, said the community was very excited and expectant. “ I don’t know anyone in the field who expects anything other than a detection to be announced,"O ile a a re. “Anything but the onset of a new era in observational gravitational astronomy would come as a major surprise on Thursday, but there remains a tiny speculative element to it until we’ll have the official LIGO announcement.”

Martin Hendry, a member of the LIGO team at Glasgow University, would not be drawn on the details of Thursday’s announcement. “I can’t say anything more at this stage than wait and see. Or should that be “watch this spacetime?"O ile a a re.

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