Maxaa ilig-maroodi ah ee na barayaa ku saabsan horumar

What an elephant’s tooth teaches us about evolution

Si aad u cadeeyo in isbedel evolutionary ma aha had iyo jeer hoos si hiddo-ka, kaliya furo maroodiga ah ee afka ...


Powered by Guardian.co.ukMaqaalkaan oo cinwaankeedu ahaa “Maxaa ilig-maroodi ah ee na barayaa ku saabsan horumar” waxaa lagu qoray by Alice Roberts, waayo Observer The on Sunday 31 January 2016 07.00 UTC

Long ka hor, laga yaabaa xataa ka hor ceeryaan damaashaaday waqti, waxaa jiray qoyska weyn oo xoolaha ku noolaa Africa. Sheekada bilaabo qaar ka mid ah 10 milyan oo sano ka hor iyo ka dibna qoyska ku soo kordheen oo ku kala bixiyey. Qiyaastii saddex milyan oo sano ka hor, laan ka mid ah daadanayaa galay Europe iyo Asia. Sida xoolaha dhaqaaqay dhulal cusub, waxay ku habboon climes waqooyiga more. Ugu dambayntii, qaar ka mid ah gudbeen buundada of Beringia, guuray xagga woqooyi-bari Asia galay North America.

Waxay arrintu u muuqataa sheeko caan ah. Sida xaqiiqada ah waxan oo dhan ku saabsan awowayaashayo waa - asalka Afrika ee Miocene ah, la fossils muhiimka ah muuqday ka korsiiya hore ee Kenya; qaar ka mid ah kooxdan Gumaysiga Europe iyo Asia; March dunida cusub. Laakiin tani ma aha sheekadii hominins: of australopithecines, paranthropines iyo faaftay. Tani waa sheekada elephantines ah: of mammoths, Loxodonta iyo Elephas.

Sifooyinka ugu weerarka maroodiga ku nool - dogob iyo faan - ayaa soo muuqday in awowayaashiin gomphothere ay by 20 milyan oo sano ka hor. Waayo, xayawaanka badan oo la qoorta gaaban, jirridda ahaa horumarinta aad u faa'iido leh, jidaynayey proboscideans kuwan inay haleelaan caleemo oo waxay iyaga keeni afka, sidaas siinta faa'ido evolutionary.

Horumarinta ee jirridda iyo isbedelka of eesoobixitaanka galay faan ay weheliyaan isbedel in qaab reer dhaladii. Inside afka, ilkaha ayaa sidoo kale la beddelo. daanka A gaaban ka tagay qolka yar set buuxda oo gowsaha, halka ilkaha loo baahan yahay si ay u awoodaan in la joogteeyo qiimihiisu uu nool dheer ee Duugga culus. Evolution bixiyo xal nidaamsan labada dhibaatooyinka. Halkii isagoo go'an oo dhan premolars iyo gowsaha sarreysa afka gala waqti isku mid ah - sida afkaaga - waxaa kaliya ahaa hal a, ilig badan ka dadbaya dhinac kasta ee daanka sare iyo hoose wakhti kasta. Sida ilig this xirtay hoos, kale la lahaa kordhaya gadaashiisa, diyaar u ah inay simbiriirixan oo meel marka iliga duugoobay baxay ka dhacday, bixinta xayawaanka la ilaa lix nooc oo ilkaha ee Meyeydaan.

aragti artist An ee gomphotherium a
aragti artist An ee gomphotherium a, awoowe afar tusked ee maroodiga ee, iyo farcankaaga. Sawir: Alamy

The ilko gomphotheres lafo iyo maroodiyo la dhawri signal ah cuntada ay. ratio ee isotopes kala duwan ee carbon in dhaldhalaalka iliga muujinaysaa in shaqsi gaar ah waxaa diiradda badan oo ku saabsan daalacanaya on caleemo ama cunaya caws. The tifqaan of Africa ugu horeysay bilaabay inuu ku wareegsan faafin 10 milyan oo sano ka hor iyo falanqaynta isotope shaaca ka qaaday in gomphotheres soo daahay oo maroodi hore wareegay isagoo wax cunaya inta badan cawska ilaa siddeed milyan oo sano ka hor. In maroodi, biiro wuxuu ka tarjumayaa isbedel kale oo ilkahoodu ay qaadka, taas oo u noqday intii saddex jeer sida dhaadheer, la badashada a of tiixtiix dhaldhalaalka. Laakiinse kuwanu qabsiga inay cunto ah hadal haynta muuqday shan milyan oo sano ka hor, saddex milyan oo sano ka dib ku biiray in ka caleemo jilicsan si cows adag. Iyada oo heerka of xal gaari karaa marka fog dib la soo dhaafay raadinaya, waa inta badan way adag tahay in la ogaado waxa hore u yimid - isbeddel ku dhaca dabeecadda ama anatomy. Laakiin kiiskan, waa mid aad u cad: isbedelada ilkaha ee Ree malaayiin sano ka dib isbedelka ku dhacay cunto.

In sheekooyin our evolutionary, shaqeeyo laftiisa inta badan u muuqataa in ay ka ciyaaraan door dadban: dhibane yaraa, ku dhowaad, isbeddellada si ay deegaanka ama Isbedelo in hiddo ay. Laakiin Qisada ilig maroodiga waa bartey kala duwan, isbeddel ku dhaca dabeecadda cad horreeyaa isbedel ku anatomy (iyo tilmaamaha hidde dahsoon ee horumarka ilkaha). Waxaa laga yaabaa in aan waa in aan la yaabay this: plasticity horumarineed ka dhigan tahay in qaab kama dambaysta ah ee jidhka xoolaha ah ee la go'aamiyo ma aha oo kaliya by DNA, laakiin sidoo kale by arrimo dibadeed. Oo xayawaanka badan yihiin dabacsan sida ay ula falgalaan bay'ada ay ka badan waxaan mararka qaarkood u qaadan. Sida maroodi muujiyaan, isha of cibaaro in horumar ka iman kartaa hab-dhaqanka halkii ka hiddo.

Ilkaha ee ah dhakada maroodiga Afrika.
Ilkaha ee ah dhakada maroodiga Afrika. Sawir: Images of Africa Photobank / Alamy

Waxa kaliya suurto gal ah in isbedelka noocan ah, keenay la isbeddel ku dhaca dabeecadda, ciyaaray door muhiim ah in horumar aadanaha. Qiyaastii laba milyan oo sano ka hor, waxaa jiray shaqada weyn ee qaabka jirka ka lugaha gaaban iska, oo hore u muuqataa in erectus faaftay. Waa u badan tahay in badan oo ka mid ah qaababka cusub jidh, ka lugaha dheer in muruqyada Salalka balaartay iyo seedaha dhaawac chunkier, la xiriira tayada shaqo ee orodka kordhay. Haddii koox ka mid ah dadka waxay bilaabeen inay si joogta ah u ordaan, laga yaabee iyaga u ogolaanaya in ay ugaadhsadaan ama tayo badan scavenge, isbedelka jidh raaci lahaa, gaar ahaan ka mid ah ciyaartoyda da'da yar ay weli-soo koraya. Marka orodka noqday qayb muhiim ah oo dhaqanka, wax Isbedelo in kor loo la fadilay lahaa. Laakiin isha dhabta ah ee cibaaro, laga yaabee, waxay ahayd isbeddel in dhaqanka oo aan isbeddel kaga dhacaa hidde.

proboscideans weyn in noqnoqon Bbc Afrika halkaas oo awowayaashayo u gaar ah waxaad fartaan Wannaagga ina xusuusinaya in cibaaro evolutionary aysan mar walba lasoo xirayba ay hiddo-.

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