From 9/11 in weeraradii Paris, ka Ebola in Isis, dhacdo kasta oo ugu waaweyn caalamka soo jiidata u dhiganta counter-sheeko ka 'truthers', qaar ka mid ah sidaas oo dhan-koobay in ay qaataan ka badan nolosha dadka. Ma maskaxda our banki in ay aaminsan yihiin, sida buug cusub oo ku dooday? Oo sida fikirka laga yaabaa dhab ahaan faa'iido?
Maqaalkaan oo cinwaankeedu ahaa “Runtu waxa ay tahay waxaa ku yaacaya baxay: sababta muuqooda faafin ka dhaqso badan abid” waxaa lagu qoray by David Shariatmadari, for The Guardian on Saturday December 26 2015 10.00 UTC
"Waxaan xasuustaa reading ku saabsan Final Fantasy VII, filim waxaan ahaa run ahaantii ku hayaa. reaction My bilowga ahayd niyad jab in ay ahayd laba sano iska -. maxaa yeelay, by markaas waxaan noqon lahaa gacanta ciidamada "Waxa uu ahaa 2004, iyo Matthew Elliott ahaa moolka. Elliott, ka San Antonio, Texas, markiisii hore lagu sawiray aragtiyaha shirqool markii uu ahaa 19, ka gadaal ah 9/11. "Waxa ay u muuqatay lama raadin in aan la weeraray ayaa laga yaabaa,"Ayuu maanta sheegay. In uu baaris in ay macno u samaysaa wixii ku dhacay uu guud ahaan u yimid caan ah "truther" dhaqdhaqaaqa, hadda ka mid ah opinion in ay dhigaan Saarra xasuuqii ka dhacay iridda dawladda Maraykanka.
"Sida ugu aragtiyaha shirqool waxaa bixiyey, mid wax had iyo jeer keenta in kale, sidaa darteed waxaa laga waxaan noqday qanacsanahay in kooxda xukunka la yiraahdo World Order Cusub abaabulay walba. Tani oo dhan u horseedi lahaa in sharciga legdinta iyo ka saarida dhamaystiran oo xorriyadaha noo,"Ayuu yidhi. Toban sano kaddib, Elliott, hadda 34, waa "kabsanaya" theorist shirqool, isagoo dhabarka ku aragtida ah in had iyo jeer sheegayaa suurtagalnimada qaar ka qarsoonayd uga soo jeestay, xoog awood badan ku simaha ka dhanka ah danaha dadka caadiga ah. Isbedelka si tartiib tartiib ah u yimid, laakiin waxa uu hadda aad u kala duwan u maleeyo. "Waxaad xitaa ma heli kartaa badan oo ka mid ah 50 gobolada in ay ku heshiiyaan wax. nasiib wacan Yurub qancin iyo Aasiyaan ah si aad u hesho on board. "
reaction Elliott ee ku trauma ee 9/11 ahayd ka fog oo aan caadi ahayn. Weerarradu waxa ay ahaayeen si aan horay loo arag, si ba'an, in badan oo inaga mid ku dhibtooday inuu dareen iyaga ka dhigi. wararka Early ahaayeen wareersan ama burinaya: ay sabab u tahay qaar ka mid ah loola dhaqmo version rasmiga ah ee dhacdooyinka la shakiga. Qayb ka mid ah kuwa markeeda harqiyay sharaxaad u baahan lahaa fakery iyo isuduwidda on baaxadda weyn.
Tani ma aha inay naga yaabiso: waa qaab in lagu celceliyo ka dib markii si lama filaan kasta oo caalami ah, iyo ka gadaal of weeraradii Paris, waxa uu mar kale yaridii madaxa. waa maalin ay jiraan weerarro argagixiso on caasimada Faransiiska gudahood, blogs la daabacay ku dooday in ay ahaayeen shuqulkii dawladda - waxa loogu yeero "calanka been ah" howlgal. sheegashada The on fikradda ah in Isis waa abuuridda ula kac ah dawladaha reer galbeedka nasan. More dhawaan, qareenka qoyska of Syed Farook, mid ka mid ah wax toogan jiray San Bernardino, wararka conspiratorial shiday markuu ku yidhi: "Waxaa jira wax badan oo dhiirogelin waqtigan in ay xoogga saaraan ama abuuro dhacdooyinka keeni doonaa gacanta ku qori ama nacayb ama naceyb u qabo bulshada Muslimiinta ah."
caymiska Round-ka saac ee dhacdooyinka caalamka macnaheedu waa siin joogta ah dhibaatooyinka iyo qalalaasaha noo fasiri. Stories of xadhig lagu jiido by gacmaha qarsoon yihiin caadiga ah a of our madadaalada, ka Spectre ee Blofeld si shirqool ah baroque ee London Spy, mid ka mid ah ruwaayado ugu amaano British sanadka, oo fagi in tusaale cajiib ah oo ah qaab khayaano. Waxa aan aaminsan in aragtiyaha shirqool ayaa noqonaya mid aad u baahsan, ayaa sheegay in fayrusyada Swami, professor of cilmi nafsiga bulshada ee jaamacadda Anglia kumatalayaa: halka cilmi aan weli samayn, waxa uu ii sheegayaa, waxaa jira cadaymo badan oo aan rasmi ahayn si ay u soo jeedinaynaa in uu aaminsan yahay in muuqooda ayaa ismay bedelin ee nus-qarnigii la soo dhaafay ama si. Maxay ayaa la bedelay, Si kastaba ha ahaatee, waa xawaaraha oo aragtiyo cusub loo sameeyay. "Waa calaamad dunida ah ka badan isku dhafan,"Ayuu yidhi. internet The dadajiyaa walba kor u, jidaynayey shaqsiyaadka shirqool-doonayay inuu isku xiro iyo dejinayaan fikradahooda. Marka la barbardhigo, way qabsadeen bilood aragtiyaha ku saabsan Pearl Harbor si ay u horumariyaan.
Karen Douglas, nafsiga kale bulshada, axdiga uugu dhibic this. "Dadka ayaa xidhiidh beddeleen ilaa xad badan oo ka badan dhowrkii sano ee la soo dhaafay. Waxa kaliya si sahlan loogu talagalay dadka si ay u helaan macluumaad shirqool xitaa haddii ay qabaan abuur yar oo shaki ah oo ku saabsan an sheekada rasmiga ah. Waa mid aad u fudud in ay online taga oo soo daydaya dad kale oo ay dareemaan si la mid ah sida aad. "
Ma qof kasta u nugul noocan oo kale ah fikirka, ama waa ilaali of faraq ah xad-dhaaf ah? Douglas xisaab waa inay ka badan inta badan oo naga mid ah ay ogaadaan. "Cilmibaaris dhowayd ayaa muujisay in ku saabsan nus ka mid ah Americans rumaysan ugu yaraan hal aragti shirqool,"Ayay tidhi. "Tahay in aad eegaya dadka celcelis; dadka laga yaabo in aad soo gaarto dariiqyada. "
Taasi waxa kale oo ay view of Rob Brotherton, kuwaas oo buug cusub, Minds Shakiga, baadhayaa sifooyin inaga kudhacaan aaminsan in muuqooda. Wuxuu digi ka dhanka fadhiya xukunka, tan oo dhan oo naga mid ah waxay leeyihiin maskaxda laga shakiyo - oo sabab wanaagsan. Garashada astaamaha iyo iyagoo u nugul khatar gelin kara waa waxa naga caawisay noolaadaan dunida ah, halkaas oo nooca inta badan soo baxay waa in aad hesho. "Buugaagta aragti Shirqool u muuqdaan in ay soo at ka barta of view of iyaga debunking. Waxaan doonayay in ay qaataan hab oo kala duwan, aysa arrinta oo dhan in aragtiyaha waa run ama been ah oo soo at marka laga eego ee cilmi nafsiga,"Ayuu yidhi. "Eexda ujeedada The, eexda dheellitirnaanta ah, eexda xaqiijin. Waxaan leenahay quirks kuwan dhisay galay maskaxda na waxay keeni kartaa in ay aaminsan yihiin wax cajiib ah oo aan ogaaday in sababta aan rumaysan. "
"Mar kasta oo wax maqlana dhacaya, waxaan leenahay eexda xaggiisa loo maleeyo in la loogu tala galay - in qof u qorshaysan, in ay jirto nooc ka mid ah ujeedada ama hay'ad gadaashiisa, halkii ay ka fekerayo waxa ay aheyd kaliya shil, ama fowdo, ama natiijo ah waye wax. "eexda ujeedada Tani, Brotherton sheegay, waxaa lagu ogaan karaa laga soo bilaabo yaraantooda. "Haddii aad weydiiso kid dhallinyaro ah sababta qof hindhisay, kid ah ayaa qaba in iyana way yeeleen on Ujeedada, in qofka waa run ahaantii ku raaxaysan hindhiso. Waa kaliya ka dib markii ku saabsan da'da afar ama shan in aan bilaabaan in ay bartaan in aan wax walba oo qof walba ma waxaa loogu tala galay. Waxaan awoodin in ay tirtirto in xukunka si toos ah. But research shows that it still stays with us even into adulthood.”
Tusaale ahaan, studies have shown that when people drink alcohol, they are more likely to interpret ambiguous actions as having been deliberate. “So if you’re at the pub and somebody jostles you and spills your drink, if it’s your first drink, you might write it off as an innocent mistake. But if you’re a few drinks in, then you’re more likely to think they did it on purpose, that it was an aggressive act.”
Like most personality traits, proneness to intentionality bias varies across the population. “Some people are more susceptible to it than others.” And, Brotherton explains, there is a small but reliable correlation between that susceptibility and belief in conspiracy theories.
External factors also play a part, Dabcan. For Ryan, who asked that I omit his last name, the influence of a single charismatic individual was crucial. It was Johnny, a friend and bandmate, who showed him books and CDs about world government and “served as a guru of sorts”. At the same time as inducting him into the truther movement, “he was introducing me to music I’d never heard and really loved”. At the height of his involvement, Ryan says he believed a broad range of conspiracy theories, including “chemtrails” – the idea that the trails left by planes contain noxious chemicals intended to subdue or poison people; that Aids and Ebola were introduced by governments to control population; that the moon landings were faked; that a substance extracted from apricots called laetrile was an effective cure for cancer, but had been banned by the FDA and dismissed as quackery to protect the interests of Big Pharma. “I strained my relationships with my family badly. It’s always the ones you love the most that you want to ‘wake up’. I ended up in hugely embarrassing debates and arguments,"Ayuu yidhi.
But beyond the anguish it caused for those close to him, were Ryan’s unorthodox beliefs harmful? Karen Douglas is wary of rubbishing all conspiracy theorising as dangerous. “Thinking in that way, it must have some positive consequences. If everybody went around just accepting what they were told by governments, officials, pharmaceutical companies, whoever, then we would be a bunch of sheep, really”. Dhinaca kale, the effects of certain theories on behaviour can be damaging. Douglas’s own research [pdf download] has shown that exposure to the idea that the British government was involved in the death of Princess Diana reduced people’s intention to engage in politics. Similarly, subjects who read a text stating that climate change was a hoax by scientists seeking funding were less likely to want to take action to reduce their carbon footprint. Markaasuu anti-vaccine conspiracy narratives make people less likely to vaccinate their children, a clear public health risk.
Should we try to stamp conspiracy theories out, ka dibna? Part of Brotherton’s argument is that they’re a natural consequence of the way our brains have evolved. Ma aha oo kaliya in, but trying to disprove them can backfire. “Any time you start trying to debunk conspiracy theories, for the people who really believe, that’s exactly what they would expect if the conspiracy were real,"Ayuu yidhi.
Swami sees things differently. “Experimental work that we’ve done shows that it’s possible to reduce conspiracist ideation.” How? Swami found that people who had been encouraged to think analytically during a verbal task were less likely to accept conspiracy theories afterwards. For him, this hints at an important potential role for education. “The best way is, at a societal level, to promote analytical thinking, to teach critical thinking skills.” But that’s not all. When people have faith in their representatives, understand what they are doing and trust that they are not corrupt, they are less likely to believe in coverups. That’s why political transparency ought to be bolstered wherever possible – and corporate transparency, aad. “A lot of people have trouble accepting a big organisation’s or government’s narratives of an event, because they’re seen as untrustworthy, they’re seen as liars,” argues Swami.
Improved teaching and changes in political and business culture would undoubtedly help. But conspiracy theories can be rejected for personal reasons, aad. Ryan’s view changed with loss of his “guru”.
“I kinda dropped out of contact with Johnny after he got married and had a baby,"Ayuu yidhi. “He was getting further and further into it, and I just couldn’t keep up with the mental gymnastics involved.” He started to look for alternative explanations – less exciting, but more plausible ones. “I looked at the people debating on the national level, for the presidency and such. No way these guys speaking in platitudes and generalisations could really be behind a global conspiracy to enslave or kill me. They weren’t doing a particularly good job of it either, considering how happy I was living my life.
“That was the epiphany, run ahaantii. I was free. I was happy. None of the doom and gloom predicted and promised ever came.” For Ryan, by then 27, the bizarre ride was over. A world that pitted him against the forces of evil had all the appeal of a spy drama. But real life was less like a story – and in some ways more depressing. What does he think are the forces that really shape things? “Most of what is wrong in the world nowadays – well, I would put it down to incompetence and greed. A lack of compassion.”
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