Ugu sareysa afar killers casriga ah ee galbeedka

The top four modern killers in the west

 

Powered by Guardian.co.ukMaqaalkaan oo cinwaankeedu ahaa “Ugu sareysa afar killers casriga ah ee galbeedka” waxaa qoray Robin McKie, waayo Observer The on Saturday 6-dii June 2015 23.05 UTC

KANSARKA

Xaggee baynu nahay
Dagaalka looga soo horjeedo kansarka ayaa cadeeyay inuu yahay mid ka mid ah caqabadaha caqliga iyo wax ku ool ah ee jeer casriga ugu weyn. A boqol oo sano ka hor, qalliin taageeray by noocyo hore ee daaweynta shucaaca waxay ahaayeen hubka kaliya ee asturidda dhakhaatiirta. Tan iyo markaas, tiro ka mid ah kacdoonkii muhiim ah ku beddeleen in.

Midkii kowaad wuxuu u hordhaca ah ee chemotherapy, qaab daroogo la dheefay, tumashada, ka gaaska khardal oo la isticmaalo hub ahaan inta lagu jiro dagaalkii ugu horeeyay ee dunida. Dhakhaatiirta fuliyay damacsanaa on dhibanayaasha gaaska xusay in ay dhaxalsiiyeen qeybinta unug, iyo versions horumariyo in ka caawiyay in ay joojiso unugyada burada ka soo faafeen. Kuwani noqday daaweynta caadiga ah ee 1950.

Maxaa hadda?
Sida cilmi genomic gudubtay in qarnigii 20-, culumadu isticmaali aqoon in ay u horumariyaan daawooyin cusub. Horumarada mar dhow ayaa waxaa ka mid ahaa daaweynta lala beegsaday. Kuwani waa gaar ah in tallaabo ay ka dhanka ah burooyinka maxaa yeelay, waxay u dhaqmaan on bartilmaameed kelli la xidhiidha unugyada kansarka gaar ah, halka ugu chemotherapies heerka dhaqmaan dhammaan unugyada si degdeg ah ugu qaybinaya, ahaan waxay caadi ah ama kansar.

Tusaale ahaan, ee ku saabsan mid ka mid ah shan bukaannada kansarka naasaha, Unugyada buro leeyihiin oo aad u badan oo borotiin ah koritaanka-u qaadida loo yaqaan HER2 ay dusha. kansarka naasaha la aad u badan oo ah protein this ayaa si gaar ah mintid, saynisyahano helay. Tiro ka mid ah daawooyinka, sida Herceptin, Waxaa la soo saaray beegsadaan protein this iyo xannibi faafidda unugyada burada. Kuwani daaweynta lala beegsaday hadda waa halbowlaha dagaalka ku soo wajahay cudurka kansarka.

Maxay yihiin dhibaatooyinka ugu waaweyn?
horumar weyn la sameeyay, laakiin dhibaatada soo baxaya waxaa laga yaabaa in dhaqaale halkii farsamo. Jiilkii cusub ee daawooyinka ee la sameeyey ay aad qaali u yihiin, kor su'aalo ah inay awoodi karaan.

Qaado technology kobcaysa oo ka mid ah immunotherapy. Unugyada kansarku waxay hantiyi nooc ka mid ah isgacan qarsoodi ah in sasabayo T-cells, qayb muhiim ah oo difaaca anti-cudur jirka ee, ma si ay u weeraraan. In 1990, saynisyahano helay Britain ah oo ku saabsan T-cells in qayb ka mid ah la isgacan oo intaasu waxay ahayd. Waxaa la og yahay sida geeri barnaamijkii 1 (PD1) iyo, tan iyo markii ay daahfurka, cilmi ah ayaa isku dayaya in ay carqaladeeyaan oo ay shaqo.

The daawooyin cusub soo bandhigay in Chicago todobaadkii hore waa natiijada shaqada this. Maxkamadeyn on bukaanka qaba melanoma sare, taas oo leh dhimashada a sare, horay u soo saaray natiijada yididiilo, laakiin cilmibaadhe oo ka digay in ay jiri karto khatar ah dhibaatooyin soo raaca in bukaanka qaar ka mid ah.

slide maskaxda
Sawir: Alamy

waallida

Xaggee baynu nahay?
Dementia ma aha run ahaantii cudur. Waa natiijada xaaladaha badan oo kala duwan. cudurka Alzheimers waa kuwa ugu badan oo ka mid ah laakiin qaar ka mid ah dementia vascular iyo frontotemporal dementia. Dhamaan foomamka, kuwaas oo ay wadaagaan Calaamadaha guud, Si kastaba ha ahaatee. Waxaa ka mid ah xusuus lumid, wareer iyo dabeecad isbedelka.

Iyadoo dementia hubaal ah ma aha natiijo lama huraan ah helitaanka jir, suurtagalnimada of horumarinta xaaladda shaki kordhiyaa da'da. Sayidka, sida cudurrada faafa ayaa la jabiyay UK, iyo heerka dhimashada xaaladaha kansarka iyo wadnaha qasbay hoos, dad badan oo ay awoodeen in ay ku noolaadaan in da '. (Cimriga ee UK uu haatan yahay 79 ragga iyo 83 loogu tala galay dumarka.)

Maanta, waxaa loo xisaabiyaa in ay jiraan haatan ka badan 850,000 dadka qaba asaasaq wadankan UK.

Maxaa hadda?
By 2025, tirada xaaladaha waallida ee UK ayaa la filayaa inay kacaan in ka badan 1 million. By 2050, waxa lagu qiyaasayaa inay ka badan 2 million. Intaa waxaa dheer, xaaladda ayaa la ogaaday in ay si gaar ah wax caadi ah in dumarka. Of the 850,000 bukaanka dementia ee Britain, 500,000 waa dumar. Sidaas darteed, haween badan 60 hadda waa labo jeer sida ay u badan tahay in aad hesho dementia sida kansarka naasaha.

Qubarada ayaa hadda ka shaqeeya si ay u isticmaalaan siyaabo teknoolajiyada hidaha iyo stem cell-in la fahmo sababaha faahfaahsan oo ka mid ah noocyada kala duwan ee dementia iyo, mustaqbalka fog, si ay u horumariyaan daawooyinka hoos u dhigi kari lahaa khasaaraha ka mid ah kulliyadaha in kuwa ay saamaysay xaaladda.

Seynisyahanno ka digaya in rajo gelin this weli gool muddo-dheer ah oo dig jirto shaqo badan in weli loo baahan yahay in la sameeyo.

Waa maxay dhibaatooyinka?
Dhibaato muhiim ah kuwa isku dayaya in ay qabto dementia la'aan khayraadka. Waxaa jiray maal waaweyn ee cudurada wadnaha iyo cilmi baarista kansarka sannadihii la soo dhaafay iyo, kuwaas oo gacan ku soo dejinaysaa heerka dhimashada.

Laakiin in uusan dhacay waallida qaba, ayaa sheegay in Matthew Norton, oo madax ka ah siyaasadda ee Alzheimer Research UK. "Kaliya fiiri tirooyinka,"Ayuu yiri.

"Bixisaan Total ee UK – ka samafalka iyo dawladda – on dementia in 2013 ahaa £ 73.8m. By la barbardhigo, kansarka, tiradaasi in uu ahaa £ 503m. "underfunding Taas macnaheedu waxa weeye shaqaale hoos, odhan ololeeya. Waxaa jira qaar ka mid ah 3,600 cilmi dementia shaqeeya -about UK 19,000 ka yar kuwa ka shaqeeya on kansarka, inkastoo dementia dhaqaalaha UK ayaa in ka badan. Sidaas, rajada helo daaweynta si aad u yarayso ama joojin khasaaraha ka mid ah kulliyadaha la xiriira waallida lagu xaddidi doonaa, dhihi cilmi.

weerar Heart, farshaxanka computer fikradeed
Sawir: PASIEKA / Scotland / Getty Images / X Brand

CUDURKA WADNAHA

Xaggee baynu nahay?
In ka badan la soo dhaafay 50 sano, waxa jiray horumar cajiib ah in heerka dhimashada cudurka wadnaha ee Britain. dhibic Tani waxaa si hufan soo koobay by Peter Weissberg, Agaasimaha caafimaadka oo ka mid ah British Heart Foundation. "Aasaaska waxay ku sii dhisnaatay 1961, marka cudurka wadnaha ahaa ku gadaaman dalka. Waxa sababay ku dhowaad nus ka mid ah oo dhan dhimashada ee UK ee sanadkaas. "

Iyadoo gocasho, ma aha adag tahay in la arko sababta. heerarka Sigaar waxay ahaayeen afar jeer ka badan maanta, halka cunista cuntooyinka ay ku sarreeyaan dufanka cokan – caanaha oo dhan, subagga iyo hilibka cas – wuxuu ahaa caadi ah.

Maanta, Cuntooyinka kuwa ayaa la bedelay fursadaha hoose-baruurta, saliidda dhirta, Caanaha labeenta iyo digaagga. Waxaan leenahay daawooyin si loo yareeyo heerka cadaadiska dhiigga iyo kolestaroolka, iyo waxa suurto gal ah in la furo halbowleyaasha xidhmey ama cidhiidhi ah oo aan qalliin weyn.

Maxaa hadda?
Hindisay daroogada in lagu daweeyo qalbigooda dhaawacan xanuunka dhibaatada muhiim ah: waa adag tahay in aad tijaabiso. "Ma haysan kartaa jarida bukaanka furan si loo saaro qaybo wadnaha-cadka. Taasi waa xaq aan wax ku ool ah ama anshaxa,"Ayuu yiri Chris Denning of University Nottingham.

xal A for saynisyahano sannadihii la soo dhaafay ayaa u jeedin isticmaalka unugyada asliga ah. At University Nottingham cilmi ayaa unugyada laga qaado maqaarka bukaanka iyo maydhaa iyaga oo ku nafaqooyin si uu wax uga beddesho galay unugyada asliga ah, nooc ka mid ah unugyada in la galay unug kasta jeestay karaa. Unugyada waxaa loo horumariyey galay unugyada wadnaha, oo waxaa lagu hayaa in suxuunta Petri ujeedooyin imtixaanka.

"Taasi waxay ka dhigan tahay waxay ku fiican yihiin isku dayay daroogo cusub oo ku saabsan. Waa horumarinta cajiib ah oo muhiim ah,"Ayuu hadalkiisa raaciyay Denning.

saynisyahano kale aaminsan yihiin in waxa laga yaabaa in ay suurtagal tahay in la isticmaalo unugyada asliga ah in si toos ah loogu cusboonaysiiyo, Quluubtooda waxyeelo mustaqbalka dhow.

Waa maxay dhibaatooyinka?
Inkastoo nidaamka caafimaadka si loo hagaajiyo sii rajada badbaadinta nolosha ah kuwa uu hayo cudurka wadnaha, waxaa jira Koox ka mid ah arrimaha epidemioligal halis si loogu daboolo gargaarka.

Tusaale ahaan, heerka of sigaar maratay hoos u dhexeeya 1972 iyo 1994 laakiin dayrta-off ayaa tan iyo hoos. Oo baahsanaanta ee la cabbo culus ma beddelmin tan iyo 1970. xun, cayilka carruurnimada ayaa sii kordhaya ee labada gabdhaha iyo wiilasha tan iyo bartamihii 1980-maadkii, halka heerka cayilka dadka waaweyn ayaa sidoo kale sii inuu kor u kaco - sida uu yahay dhacdooyinka of diabetes UK. Oo kulli intaas oo arrimood ay kordhiyaan halista in heerka dhimashada cudurka wadnaha uu soo sara kaco laga yaabaa in mustaqbalka dhow.

Weissberg ayaa ka digay in arrimahan "hanjabo inay weeciyaan ku-rogga hoos heerka cudurka iyo dhimashada wadnaha in aan hadda la kulma".

Difaaca weerarka fayraska ifilada, farshaxanka
Sawir: SCIEPRO / Getty Images / Brand X

cudurada faafa

Xaggee baynu nahay?
Adkaadeen karbaashidda cudurada faafa ee dunida reer galbeedka waxaa guud ahaan loo aaneeyey inay u horumarinta barnaamijyada tallaalka iyo antibiotics, inkastoo fayadhowrka hagaagay iyo waxbarashada caafimaadka ayaa sidoo kale qodob oo muhiim ah.

"Dhab ahaan, heerka dhimashada ka qaaxada, dilaaga ah ficiladooda, ay bilaabeen in ay hoos by bartamihii qarnigii 19-ka,"Ayuu yiri Carsten Timmermann ee Manchester University. "In 1838, agagaarka waxaa ku jiray 4,000 dhimasho halkii milyan iyadoo ay sabab u TB, laakiin tani ayaa u dhacday agagaarka 1,000 by 1900. Tallaalada iyo antibiotics lahaa waxba kuma laha in. Illeen, ma cadda sababta hoos u dhacay oo dhan. Laakiin waxaa kale oo iska cad in barnaamijyada sida mashruuca tallaalka BCG ayaa runtii joojiyay qaaxada isagoo dilaaga dhab ah by bartamihii qarnigii 20aad. "

Maxaa hadda?
In galbeed, cudurrada faafa ugu ayaa hadda lagu hayaa kaabinka. Si kastaba ha ahaatee, dheelitirka waa mid ka mid ah walwalsan. "In 1960, a Dhakhtar guud ee Maraykanka ayaa lagu eedeeyay inuu sheegay in cudurrada faafa ayaa si buuxda looga adkaado,"Ayuu yiri Jeremy Farrar, kan madaxa ah oo ah Wellcome UK Trust.

"Sheekadu waxaa laga yaabaa in apocryphal laakiin waxaa hubaal ah soo koobaysaa dabeecadaha waqtiga. Markaasuu, laba qof oo ah labaatan sano ka dib, waxaan lahaa imaanshiyaha HIV ee galbeedka iyo waano aad u cad oo ku saabsan khatarta ah weligeed joogta oo cudurada faafa, taas oo aad si deg deg ah ku faafi karaa ka qaybaha kale ee adduunka. "

Intaa waxaa dheer, soo sara ah ee iska caabin ah antibiotic – natiijo, in qayb ka mid, of istimaalka – ayaa keentay in cabsi laga qabo sii kordhaya in mid ka mid ah difaacyada galbeed ee muhiimka ah cudurka faafa yaanay ka hallaabin mustaqbalka dhow, haddii shirkadaha dawooyinka soo dedejin horumarinta versions cusub.

Waa maxay dhibaatooyinka?
In dunida soo tarayay oo ku xiran, waa qaar badan oo ka adag tahay si loo xakameeyo cudurada faafa. Isbedelada ee cimilada iyo guuritaan ku kordheen tan iyo meelaha ay goor wanaagsan heerka badda ama faafidda lamadegaanka sidoo kale xoojin doonaa halista cudurada cusub ama nooc cusub oo ka mid ah xaaladaha jira yimaada galbeed saameeyeen.

"In quruumaha koraya, waxaan ku bedelay dhibaatooyinka cudurada faafa arrimaha caafimaadka sida macaanka iyo cayilka,"Ayuu yiri Farrar. "Quruumaha Laakiin horumarinta, ay weli dhibaatooyin waaweyn oo la cudurada faafa – duumada, TB iyo HIV, tusaale ahaan – laakiin waxaa sidoo kale la saameeyeen buurnaanta oo diabetes. Dalalka sida kuwan – Vietnam waa tusaale wanaagsan – u baahan tahay caawimo badan hay'adaha caalamiga ah sida Ururka Caafimaadka Adduunka. Si kastaba ha ahaatee, hay'adaha kuwaas oo aan la qaadan taageerada ay u baahan yihiin xagga galbeed mar dambe. "

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