Shan Mars daahfurtay in loo bedelay fahamka caalamka cas oo naga

Five Mars discoveries that transformed our understanding of the red planet

 

Powered by Guardian.co.ukMaqaalkaan oo cinwaankeedu ahaa “Shan Mars daahfurtay in loo bedelay fahamka caalamka cas oo naga” waxaa qoray Alan Yuhas ee New York, u theguardian.com on November Thursday 5- 2015 21.15 UTC

Iyadoo Rover ah trundling badan ciid guduudan, quusidda pride ah iyada oo jawi iyo kooxaha shaqada oo dhan ku wareegsan dhulka, Mars ayaa la siin xarig qarsoon in Nasa ee sannadkii la soo dhaafay. Halkan waxaa ku qoran qaar ka mid ah daahfurtay weyn ee 2015.

Biyo Liquid on Mars

Doonteen tobanaan, caddeyn oo biyo ah dareere ku Mars macno ahaan ka soo caalamka ee July, ordaya hoos canyons iyo derbiyada bohol in ka badan xagaaga. A kooxda Nasa helay biyuhu cusbada, qoriga sigaarka ah ee biyaha dareere ah, afar goobood oo meesha Wasaqda madow trickled hoos dhul Martian.

Nasa weli garan maayo isha socodka mid marwalba briny, kaas oo ku kici kara ka barafka dhulka hoostiisa ama kayd-, ama taqaanaa in ka mid ah jawiga. Hawlgallada hore ayaa helay tilmaamo oo biyo ah, oo ay ku jiraan images of waxa u muuqatay in durdurraa ka yar iyo xataa biyaha gullies Roobka, laakiin daahfurka xagaaga la amaanay sida ugu horeysay xaqiijiyay caddaymo ah oo dareere ah ugu la xiriira nolosha.

Cilmi ayaa muddo dheer in biyaha dareere waa qayb a aasaasiga ah ee nolosha - dheg Nasa ee doonidiina waa "raacaan biyaha" - laakiin saynisyahano hadda wajahayaan dhibaato badan sida in ay baaritaan ku durdurrada. Rover Xiisaha in sahamisay Mars muddo saddex sano ah ma aha oo Nadiif ah, iyo sumayn karaan meelaha qoyan la cayayaanka tan kuwa dhulkuna in iishay gal pride maraya Cosmos ah. Rover baaro laga yaabaa inuu ka fog, la laser ah in loo qiyaaso lahaa oo xariijimo ah, ama waxa ay halis gelin kara soo socdo si ay u qaato ilaa dhoobo qaar ka mid ah.

Jawi furteen dabaysha qoraxda

On Thursday, Nasa ku dhawaaqay taxane ah oo ku saabsan natiijooyinka Mars 'jawiga in ka caawin kara xallinta qarsoodiga waxa ku dhacay Mars, oo balaayiin sano ka hor waxaa qoyay ah, adduunka diiran jawi 100 jeer ka sii dhumuc weyn. Maanta Mars qalalan yahay, frigid iyo duqeymo ka dhacaan shucaaca ka - duni aan duurka ku xoog magnetic ku wareegsan dhulka iyo waxa ka ilaaliya qaraxyo qorraxda.

Waxyaabihii ka soo Nasa ayaa Maven pride, oo gaadhay Mars dayrta la soo dhaafay si ay u baaraan ay jawi khafiif, waxaa lagu caawiyo si ay u xaliyaan qarsoodiga in. Saynisyahano Mission ogaaday in dabeylo qoraxda, oo tamarta qaraxa iyo magnetism aragba, dharka iska qayb ka jawiga ee Mars heerka cajiib ah.

"Sida la xaday oo ah lacagta birta yar ka kaashka ah diiwaan maalin kasta, khasaaraha uu noqdo muhiim ah waqti ka,"Ayuu yiri Bruce Jakosky, Baaraha maamulaha Maven ee. Duufaanada Solar ahaayeen kuwo ka badan caadi ah oo aad u daran hore ee taariikhda nidaamka qoraxda ee, taasoo la micno ah in dhacdooyinka qorraxda ayaa laga yaabaa in raad weyn ee biyaha iyo jawiga ee Mars.

Hawlgalkaa waxaa sidoo kale qiyaasay kooban oo Are'obagos jawi ah markii ugu horeysay tan iyo markii ay howlgallada Viking waqtiga 40 sano ka hor, oo laga helay xaddi dahsoon ee boodhka lagu haro caalamka. Cilmi baadhayaashu waxa laga soo jeediyay waxa laga yaabaa in boodhka interplanetary - casayd runtan tagay by ururta, iyo astiriyoodhada oo Toggooda soo nidaamka tamarta qoraxda.

Harooyinka Baydka

Bishii Oktoobar, Saynisyahano Nasa helay caddaymo ah ee harooyinka in ay kor u socday ayaa laga yaabaa in ay 10,000 sano - waxaana suurto gal ah dheer oo ku filan si ay u horumariyaan nolosha in muuqaalka ah kaneecada ee durdurrada gacmeed iyo DeLTAS. Falanqaynta Texas tusay saynisyahano in biyo biyaa, siday quruurux iyo ciid hoos bohol ku Gale toosaa. In xarunta bohol ka taagan buurta is cafinta loo yaqaan Buur Sharp ah, laftiisa raasamaal saddex-miles lakabyada Texas.

Biyaha dhulka hoostiisa mara

Bishii Abriil, Rover Xiisaha helay caddeyn oo biyo ah dareere oogada hoose ee Mars, iyo heerkulka diiwaan bohol Gale in ay ahaayeen kaliya saxda ah ee brine dareere. Natiijooyinka ayaa soo jeediyay in ciidda Martian waa qoyan biyo in joogi kartaa mahad dareere cusbo ah, calcium perchlorate, oo waxay ku hayaa dheecaan hoos ku saabsan -70C.

Auroras

Saynisyahano Maven ayaa sidoo kale lagu ogaaday in dabayl qoraxda u dhigma ee nalalka waqooyiga ee guud ahaan eedeymahaas ku badan ee Mars abuuraa, keena ku-tamar sare qurubyada oo xiiso leh jawi unguarded by beer magnetic. Aadanuhu aragti arki karin auroras Martian oo guduudan, midabada buluug iyo cagaar ah oo ku saabsan noocyada la arki karo, laakiin Nasa ma garanayno waxa nalalka ekaanayo, tan iyo Rovers ay haystaan ​​qalabka si ay u arkaan.

Auroras ayaa sidoo kale soo jeedinaya in inta badan Mars waxaa garaaceen dabaylo qoraxda, guuleysteen inay caddeyn in fikradda ah in dhacdooyinka qoraxda ka qayb qaatay khasaaraha ka mid ah jawiga oo dhan ee daafaha adduunka. Qaar ka mid ah beeraha magnetic weli ku sugan qaybo ka mid ah qolof baahsan caalamka, laakiin caalamka ka maqan gaashaan caalamka in mar.

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