Wax walba oo aad u baahan tahay inaad ogaatid oo ku saabsan hirarka gravitational

Everything You Need to Know about Gravitational Waves

Iyada oo warar sheegaya in socoshada Maraykan ah ku dhawaaqi doonaa on Thursday in ay ogaan caddayn mawjadihii gravitational, halkan macluumaadka muhiimka ah


Powered by Guardian.co.ukMaqaalkaan oo cinwaankeedu ahaa “Daawo spacetime this: daahfurka ruxruxo gravitational filayaa” waxaa qoray Sample editor Science Ian, waayo, The Guardian-ka 9-Tuesday February 2016 15.59 UTC

A search labaatankii sano-dheer hirarka gravitational ayaa la filayaa in ay soo afjarto in guuleed isbuucaan marka saynisyahano sheegi waxay ka helay ripples in dhar ah spacetime, suurto gal abuuray by dhaceen laba godad madow weyn safraya at meel u dhow xawaaraha iftiinka.

First saadaaliyay by Einstein, iyo ee ay dhacdooyinka ugu cataclysmic in Cosmos ee, hirarka gravitational fidin iyo meel cadaadi oo dhan waxaa gudahood sida ay soo kala bixiyeen daafaha caalamka. waxay daahfurka, haddii xaqiijiyay, waa qaar si ay u helaan abaalmarinta Nobel a.

Seynisyahanno ku ugaadhsado calaamadaha hirarka muddo tobannaan sano, laakiin ilaa hadda, isku daygeeda ay ayaa ka xumaaday calaamadaha been ah oo alaabta aan xasaasi ah oo ku filan in lagu ogaado hirarka by markii ay gaareen Earth.

Taas ayaa la filayaa inuu bedeli on Thursday, marka physicists ee Maraykanka ayaa muujinaya in xogta ay ugu dambeeyay ee ka tijaabo ah oo loo yaqaan LIGO, ama Observatory Laser Advanced Interferometer gravitational-Wave. Kooxdu waxay leeyihiin qalabka ee Washington iyo Louisiana in goobjooga karaa marayay hirarka gravitational via isbedelka Minuscule oo dherer ah waxay soo saaraan in labada tuubbo-dheer 4 km.

At shir jaraa'id in Washington a, saynisyahano LIGO la filayaa in ay daaha ka cad a, signal la ruxruxo gravitational dirayaan. Waxaa laga yaabaa in ay ka yimaadeen laba godad madow badan, mid ka mid 29 jeer ka weyn oo qorraxda ka sii, kale ee 36 jeer ka weyn, faraha agagaarka kasta oo kale oo ugu dambeyntii wada hartay si ay u sameeyaan a godka madow cusub 62 jeer mass ee qorraxda. Maxaa yeelay, dhammaan ay heft, jidhka cusub wax ka badan waxaa laga yaabaa in 200 miles ballaaran.

mass ayaa ka maqan – oo u dhiganta in saddex shabagyada, ama lix trillion trillion kilotonnes – waxaa beddelay tamarta iyo sii daayay sida hirarka gravitational LIGO la rumeysan yahay in la ogaado.

"Dadka waa weyn ku faraxsan. belef waa in ay signal a shir sanadeedkii weyn, in si kale loo dhigo, waa dirayaan, iyo in uu yahay fantastic,"Ayuu yiri Pedro Ferreira, professor of jaamacadaha UCLA Jaamacadda Oxford, iyo qoraaga oo ka mid ah 2014 buugga, Perfect Aragtida The: qarnigii a of Sweden oo dagaalkiina wuxuu u badan relativity guud.

Marka Einstein daabacay uu aragti of relativity guud ee 1915, Wuxuu weligiis u bedelay sida saynisyahano eegto caalamka. Fikradda muujisay in tiro ka dhigaysa qalooca spacetime, saamayn in uu leeyahay dad badan oo la iman kara. Mid ka mid ah, light in ka xiddigaha fog xoodaan doonaa agagaarka qorraxda, la xaqiijiyay by Arthur Eddington inta lagu guda jiro madoobaad qoraxda ee 1919.

ogaanshaha ee hirarka gravitational sax lahaa saadaasha ee la soo dhaafay weyn ee relativity guud. Waxay muujiyaan in isla'egyada kor loogu bixiyey by Einstein, oo diiday in ay rumaysan yihiin in godadka madow isaga qudhiisu, qaban run in waxa kaalinta sida boqortooyada ugu ba'an ee physics.

Laakiin waxaa jira in ka badan in laga helay ee hirarka gravitational badan si fudud caddaynaya ay ka jiraan. Haddii signal LIGO u xoog badan yahay sida wararka xanta ah ayaa soo jeedinaya, alaabtii cusub la dhisi kari waayeen in lagu ogaado hirarka cuf ka dhaceen godadka madow iyo dhacdooyin kale oo weyn firfircoon oo dhan koonkan.

"Waxa ay noqon doontaa sida isagoo xoqad ah in, halkii eegaya waxyaabaha ku spectrum ee electromagnetic, waa eegay oo ku hirarku gravitational,"Ayuu yiri Ferreira. "Waxaan arki karin wax jid gebi ahaan kala duwan. Waa in la aad u darsan lahaa aragti – hirarka gravitational ma ku fiican yihiin walxaha pinpointing – laakiin waxay kaa caawin lahaa na fahmaan waxa dhaca marka godad madow HS dhici mid kale. "

"Xaqiiqdu waxay tahay mar kasta oo aan eegay caalamka oo siyaabo cusub, la x-rays, hirarku radio, waxaan helay walax cajiib ah, exotica. Sidaas this waxaa laga sugayaa inay furto daaqad cusub, oo hubaal waxaannu ogaan doonaa walax yaab leh,"Ayuu hadalkiisa ku daray.

Warar xan in kooxda LIGO uu ogaado hirarka gravitational ayaa la wareegaya bulshada UCLA ee muddo bilo ah. Laakiin cilmi badan ayaa ka walaacsan wayna cabsadeen wararka xanta ah ayaa laga yaabaa in la keentay by calaamadaha synthetic taas oo lagu daray in xogta si ay u tijaabiso hannaanka gorfaynta kooxda.

"Dhammaan wararka xanta ah dhowrkii bilood ee la soo dhaafay ka dib waxaan dhab ahaan iyaga ka filan in uu ku dhawaaqo ogaado a at marayso,"Ayuu yiri Alberto Sesana, cilmi baare ka tirsan jaamacadda Birmingham ee gravitational Wave Group. "Waa in aan ku haay maanka in LIGO waa mid tijaabo iyo mid ka mid ah oo kaliya in lagu ogaan karaa sida ilo. Haddii ay sheeganayaan in ay ku ogaado hirarka gravitational, waxa aan la xaqiijin karaa iyadoo qalab kale, iyo in had iyo jeer waa arin. Laakiin waxay ahayd mid aad u dhawrsataan in si sax ah waxan u samaynaysaan. Kalsooni ayaan ku qabaa ay cadayn cad oo xoog badan, waxaa ka. "

Waxaa jirta fursad ah signal ah waxaa lagu dhawaaqi doonaa ka il kale, sida labo ka mid ah xiddigaha neutron daadgureyntaasi mid kale, ama xiddiga neutron a god bay ku dhici madow. Laakiin dhacdooyinka runtan sida la filayay in ay soo saaraan calaamadaha ka nugul yihiin ku saynisyahano kororka badan rajayn kooxda LIGO si ay u Muujin.

Seynisyahanno ku dhawaaqay daahfurka mawjadihii gravitational ka hor oo kaliya in ay ku rajo ay tuuri. In 2014, cilmi on tijaabo ah oo la odhan jiray Bicep2 sheegtay in ay cadayn helin hirarka gravitational ka bang weyn, laakiin baaritaan dheeraad ah by kooxaha kale muujisay in calaamadaha waxay soo gaaray la gebi sharaxay karin boodh meel farageliyaan cabbirka ay.

Ulrich Sperhake, theorist a at University Cambridge kuwa daraasaad sida hirarka gravitational ahaan by godadka madow, ayaa sheegay in beesha uu ahaa mid aad u faraxsan iyo uurka. "Anigu garan maayo cid duurka kii rajaynayo in wax kale oo aan ahayn la ogaado in lagu dhawaaqay,"Ayuu yiri. "Wax kasta laakiin bilawga marxalad cusub ee xiddigaha gravitational dheehidda iman lahaa sida la yaab leh oo waaweyn on Thursday, laakiin waxaa weli ku element kuteen yar in ay ilaa aynu lahaan doono ee rasmi LIGO. "

Martin Hendry, xubin ka mid ah kooxda LIGO ee jaamacadda Glasgow, aan doonaynin in la barbaro on faahfaahinta Thursday ee lagu dhawaaqay. "Waxaan wax ka badan ma dhihi karo marxaladan badan sugnaa oo aan aragnaa. Ama waa in ay noqon "daawan spacetime this?"Ayuu yiri.

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