Vitajte na stránkach The Robot-Based pracovníkoch

Welcome to The Robot-Based Workforce

Od waitstaff starať spoločníkmi a právne výskumníkmi, budúcnosť pracovníka stroja je tu. Ale tam, kde to má opustiť ľudí


Beží na guardian.co.ukTento článok s názvom “Vitajte na pracovnú silu robota na báze: bude vaša práca stane automatizovaný príliš?” napísal Julia Carrie Wong v San Franciscu, Pre pozorovateľa na sobotu 19. marca 2016 14.24 UTC

"Je to čistá mágia,"Eats sľuby.

Na prvý plne automatizovaný reštaurácie v San Franciscu, pokrmy objavujú v malých sklenených kójí, len 90 sekúnd potom, čo zákazníci objednávať a platiť na nástenných iPady. Je to skúsenosť človeka a menej - no waitstaff, no pokladničné, nikto dostať svoje objednávky zle a nikto ku končekom.

Je to tiež salón trik.

Vo chvíli, ako sa objaví jedlo, zobrazenie na displeji see-through, ktorý stojí oproti Cubbies sčernie za niekoľko sekúnd, keď by ste mohli zahliadnuť ruku, ktorá ťa kŕmi.

Eats ešte nedosiahlo úplné automatizáciu. Spoločnosť pripúšťa, že zamestnáva malý kuchynský personál, a jeden pracovník je prítomný v prednej časti domu, odpovedať na otázky o tom, ako objednať a uhýbať otázky o tom, čo sa deje za múrom mágie kójí. ("Nech si predstaviť,,"Povedal podpichuje.)

Ale v reštaurácii, ktorá bola otvorená v auguste a už rozšíril do Los Angeles, Ponúka pohľad na rýchlo sa blížiaci realite, kde celých kategórií úloh, ktoré boli kedysi patrí do výlučnej právomoci ľudí môže byť dosiahnuté rýchlejšie, lacnejšie, a spoľahlivejšie strojmi.

Budúcnosť je tu, A nikto ich úlohou je bezpečný.

Stroja pri práci

"Vidím, že s masovou nezamestnanosťou na obzore, ako robotika revolúcia ujme,"Vyhlásil Noel Sharkey, emeritný profesor robotiky a umelej inteligencie na univerzite v Sheffielde vo Veľkej Británii. Sharkey nedávno začala nadácia pre zodpovedný robotiku, čo nám pomáha vyhnúť sa "potenciál spoločenských a etických nebezpečenstvo" z rozšírenia uplatňovania autonómnych robotov.

Na tom nie je nič zvlášť nové o poplachu Sharkey sa znejúcim. V 2013, Oxford učenci Carl Benedikt Frey a Michael Osborne varoval, že približne 47% celkovej zamestnanosti v USA bol v ohrození výpočtovej techniky, V analýze, ktorá zaradil 702 povolania podľa ich pravdepodobnosti, že budú odstránené.

telemarketers, účtovný, športové rozhodca, legálne sekretárky, a bolo zistené, pokladničné byť medzi najviac pravdepodobný, že prídu o prácu, zatiaľ čo lekári, predškolské učitelia, právnici, umelci, a duchovenstvo zostal relatívne bezpečná.

V budúcnosť profesií, publikoval v 2015, Autori Richard Susskind a jeho syn, daniel Susskind, argumentoval, že dokonca aj tie tradičné profesie bude klesať a byť nahradený "zvýšene schopných systémy".

Zákazník používa iPady na miesto a zaplatiť za svoju objednávku na Eats, plne automatizovaný reštaurácia v San Franciscu.
Zákazník používa iPady na miesto a zaplatiť za svoju objednávku na Eats, plne automatizovaný reštaurácia v San Franciscu. Fotografie: Ramin Talaia pre Observer

V Susskinds už nemusí použiť budúci čas. Vlani v lete bol zahájený nástroj právnej pomoci s názvom ROSS, ktorý využíva IBM umelo inteligentné super-počítač Watson prevziať prácu právneho výskumu.

ROSS Intelligence spoluzakladateľ a CEO Andrew Arruda argumentuje tým, že nástroj, which can perform work that once took hours in a matter of seconds, is not a threat to jobs since major law firms stopped billing for hours spent on research during the Great Recession. He also said that ROSS would “increase access to justice” by making legal representation more accessible for the 80% of Americans who cannot afford it.

Stále, ROSS is doing work that humans were once paid top dollar to perform.

On Tuesday, the Financial Times reported on an analysis by Deloitte that found that the UK had already lost 31,000 jobs in the legal sector to automation, and projected that another 114,000 jobs would be next.

It’s all happening very fast. V 2013, MIT engineering professor John Leonard told the MIT Technology Review that “robots simply replacing humans” would not happen in his lifetime. “The semi-autonomous taxi will still have a driver,” he argued. dnes, Google’s autonomous cars have traveled more than 1m miles on public streets, and self-driving taxis seem all but inevitable.

Sharkey expects that the service industry will be particularly hard hit. He estimates that by 2018 there will be 35 million service robots “at work”.

Computerized cubbies at Eatsa, San Francisco.
Computerized cubbies at Eatsa, San Francisco. Fotografie: Ramin Talaia pre Observer

A bartending robot named “Monsieur” is already on the market. A hardware store in San Jose, California has a retail associate robot named “Oshbot.” The UK salad bar chain Tossed reportedly announced this month that two outlets in London would have self-service kiosks instead of cashiers. Vo štvrtok, Domino’s Australia unveiled a pizza delivery robot in Brisbane.

Some companies seem sensitive to the criticism that they might be taking away people’s jobs.

Vo štvrtok, Bloomberg reported that Google is selling Boston Dynamics, the inventor of frighteningly agile robots that it acquired in 2013.

“There’s excitement from the tech press, but we’re also starting to see some negative threads about it being terrifying, ready to take humans’ jobs,” wrote one Google employee in internal emails obtained by Bloomberg.

Micah Green, the founder of Maidbot, a company building robots to clean hotel rooms, emphasizes that “at this stage” the company’s products are “an augmentation, not replacement” of housekeepers.

Other inventors make no bones about their job-replacing intentions.

Just a few miles away from Eatsa another San Francisco startup, Momentum Machines, is building robots that could replace the minions behind the curtain. V 2012, the company debuted a fully automated hamburger making machine, and its website boasts that it has moved on to salads, sandwiches, and “many other multi-ingredient foods”.

“Our device isn’t meant to make employees more efficient,” co-founder Alexandros Vardakostas told Xconomy. “It’s meant to completely obviate them.”

Mabu, the robot friend

V 2014, Stowe Boyd, a self-described post-futurist, threw down the gauntlet. “The central question of 2025 will be: What are people for in a world that does not need their labor, and where only a minority are needed to guide the ‘bot-based economy?’” he asked in a Pew Research Center report.

The answer may lie in the kinds of activities that are frequently unpaid: care work traditionally assigned to women. Computers and robots may be better than humans at manual labor, paperwork, and even logic, but they do not feel, and they cannot empathize.

Najmenej, not really.

In a basement office in San Francisco’s Dogpatch neighborhood, Dr Cory Kidd is building a robot whose sole job is to motivate its owners into positive behavioral changes.

Mabu is a desk lamp-sized robot who carries a touchpad on her belly. As a “personal healthcare companion”, she is intended for patients managing chronic diseases. With wide green eyes and pale yellow skin, she could be one of the personified feelings in the Pixar movie Inside Out. And feelings are what she is all about.

For a robot, Mabu doesn’t do anything particularly impressive. She just sits on your bedside table, waking up once or twice a day to hold a conversation with her owner.

Cory Kidd, CEO and founder of Catalia Health, pictured with Mabu.
Cory Kidd, CEO and founder of Catalia Health, pictured with Mabu. Fotografie: Ramin Talaia pre Observer

Those conversations, designed with input from behavioral psychologists and a former Hollywood screenwriter and made possible by artificial intelligence that helps Mabu adapt to an individual’s personality and interests, are intended to “leverage the patient’s own motivation” to follow their treatment plans.

 

Mabu is subtly female in voice and in appearance, a choice Kidd says is based on research that, stereotypically, “women are seen as more helpful and caring”.

Does Mabu care for us? She is plastic, but when Kidd tells her that he does not feel that great, she responds, “You’re carrying a lot on your shoulders,” and dips her head in a gesture that looks like empathy.

Do we care for Mabu? Kidd says that when he has collected her from patients after trials, many have objected. “They say, ‘She’s like a member of the family.’”

She can provide a certain kind of emotional and psychological support that humans might not be able to accomplish effectively. Imagine your partner asking you every single day whether you have taken your pill, and then imagine how long they would remain your partner. (This is why Kidd says, “we’re not replacing any human. I can’t think of a person who would be a healthcare companion.”)

But if Mabu can be better at being human than humans can, what is left for us?

Perhaps only the bearing and rearing of new humans. This is where Noel Sharkey draws the line. V 2008, Sharkey published The Ethical Frontiers of Robotics in the journal Veda, a paper in which he warned against the development of “child-minding robots” already taking place in Japan and South Korea.

Sharkey has continued to study developments in the field of nanny robots, including some that are already available, such as the “Childcare Robot PaPeRo” from Japan’s Nippon Electric Company (NEC).

“We have already seen the overuse of robots in looking after children,” Sharkey says. “From our detailed analysis of the possibility of long term care of children by robots, we can expect a number of severe attachment disorders that could reap havoc in our society.”

It’s all of our job to prevent that.

guardian.co.uk © Guardian News & Media Limited 2010

súvisiace články