Ochuluka kwambiri ambiri Zoipa Memory

Too Many Neurons Spoil the Memory

Kafukufuku watsopano limasonyeza njira ma imene zinthu zimene kabisidwe Intaneti okhudza mitsempha kutuluka


Zoyendetsedwa ndi Guardian.co.ukNkhaniyi lotchedwa “ochuluka ambiri amawononga kukumbukira” linalembedwa ndi Mo Costandi, pakuti theguardian.com pa Friday 12 February 2016 15.15 UTC

Ndiuzeni kumene akukhala maganizo, aiwala kufikira kuitana iwo? Ndiuzeni kumene akukhala zisangalalo akale, ndipo pamene zikonda wakale, Ndipo pamene iwo kuyambiranso mwatsopano, ndipo usiku wa anaiwalika kale, Kuti ine ndikhoze akudutsa nthawi ndi malo mpaka akumidzi, ndi kubweretsa Amatonthoza mu chisoni panopa ndi usiku kupweteka? Iwe ukupita, O ganizo? Zimene dziko kutali ndi ndege wako? Ngati iwe udzabwerera kwa mphindi lino la nsautso, Ufuna kubweretsa zabwino pa mapiko anu, ndipo dews ndi uchi ndi mafuta amankhwala, Kapena ululu kwa zikusowa chipululu, kwa maso a envier ndi?

Mu ndakatulo yake epic, Masomphenya a ana aakazi a Albion, William Blake zodabwitsa za chilengedwe yokumbukira, umatha maganizo tiyende nthawi kutali ndi malo, ndi maganizo amphamvu, zabwino ndi zoipa, kuti kukumbukira wathu angasankhe ungakhudze. The ndakatulo muli mafunso amene atsala kwambiri zothandiza lero, monga zimene zimachitika m'chikumbumtima chathu kuleza otaika, ndipo nanga ife awatenge?

zaka zoposa iŵiri, ndi njira yosungirako kukumbukira ndi katengedwe ndi zochitika kwambiri intensively anaphunzira sayansi ubongo. Izo ambiri amakhulupirira kuti kukumbukira mapangidwe kumafuna kulimbitsa kugwirizana pakati pa Intaneti kulibe anagawira ochuluka mu dongosolo ubongo otchedwa hippocampus, ndipo katengedwe wotsatira kumafuna reactivation omwewo ensembles okhudza mitsempha. koma, asayansi ya ubongo akadali amavutika kuyankha mafunso Blake ndithudi.

Tsopano, gulu la akatswiri pa University of Geneva apanga pasadakhale ina yofunika kwambiri kumvetsetsa kwathu zimagwirira ubongo zakuya kukumbukira mapangidwe. Ntchito boma la-ndi-luso Pankafunika optogenetics, amasonyeza mmene ensembles okhudza mitsempha kuti encode kukumbukira kutuluka, kuwulula kuti ensembles munali ochuluka zambiri - kapena ochepa kwambiri - kusokoneza kukumbukira katengedwe.

optogenetics ndi njira zamphamvu kwambiri zimene zimaphatikizapo kuyambitsa mapuloteni algal wotchedwa channelrhodopsins (ChRs) mu ochuluka. Izi imatembenuza maselo tcheru kuwala, chotero kuti magulu yake wa iwo akhoza anazimitsa kapena kuvula, ntchito nyemba kuwala laser amasulidwa kulowa mu ubongo kudzera ulusi kuwala, pa timescale wa milliseconds.

Mzaka zaposachedwa, ofufuza ntchito optogenetics kuti amanena ochuluka hippocampal kuti timagwira ntchito pa kukumbukira lomenyera ubongo mbewa, ndi kusintha ensembles olembedwa m'njira zosiyanasiyana. Mwa njira iyi, iwo akhoza n'kuwatsegulanso ndi ensembles zomwezo kupangira kukumbukira katengedwe; kusinthana kukumbukira mantha kapena kuvula; kutembenuza kukumbukira zoipa mu zolimbikitsa, kapena mosinthanitsa; ngakhalenso likhazikike kukumbukira bodza lamkunkhuniza mu ubongo wa mbewa.

The kafukufuku latsopano, kutsogoleredwa ndi Pablo Mendez ndi malemu Dominique Müller, amene chisoni anamwalira pangozi motsetsereka mu April chaka chatha, amanga pa ntchito kale. Iwo analenga mbewa chibadwa adapanga kufotokoza ChR maselo granule mbali imodzi ya ubongo, mu dentate dera wa hippocampus ndi. maselo Granule ndi ochuluka mfundo m'dera lino la hippocampus ndi, omwe ankaganiza kuti yovuta kwa ntchito hippocampal monga kukumbukira ndi navigation okhudza malo. Iwo anaika nyama mu osayenera lalikulu, kulola ena a iwo kufufuza chilengedwe chawo chatsopano. Panthawiyi, iwo optogenetically adamulowetsa maselo mwachisawawa granule zina mbewa, koma ena.

Hippocampal granule maselo kufotokoza Channelrhodopsin (wofiirawo).
Hippocampal granule maselo kufotokoza Channelrhodopsin (wofiirawo). Image: Pablo Mendez

Pamene iwo kuligaŵa ndipo anafufuza ubongo nyama ' 45 Patangodutsa, ofufuza anapeza okhudza malo kufufuza zachititsa ntchito ensembles ochuluka hippocampal, monga anatsimikiza mtima Kuchuluka kwa cFos, otchedwa 'mwamsanga oyambirira jini imene anazimitsa pa mwamsanga pamene ochuluka kuyamba moto. Chofunika, mbewa kuloledwa kufufuza osayenera awo anali manambala apamwamba cFos-kufotokoza maselo granule kuposa anthu anasiya osayenera kwawo kwa nthaŵi ya kafukufuku wa, ndipo iwo amene analandira optogenetic kukondoweza pa kufufuza anali manambala kwambiri kuposa cFosochuluka -positive kuposa iwo sanatero.

Izi zinasonyeza kuti kufufuza okhudza malo amatipatsa ntchito ensembles wa dentate maselo granule, ndipo mosintha bongo ntchito Intaneti awa ndi kukondoweza optogenetic kumawonjezera kukula kwa ensembles ndi, kapena chiwerengero cha maselo mwa iwo.

Koma zikugwira kukula kwa ensembles ndi mphamvu iliyonse pa khalidwe? Kupeza, Mendez ndi anzake anaika mbewa kufotokoza ChR mu hippocampi awo mu khola wina, nawapatsa wofatsa zodabwitsa zambiri magetsi. Ndi kubwereza kwa mankhwala, mbewa mwamsanga muziopa khola, ndipo mwamsanga amaundana pamene anabwerera ku izo, ngakhale iwo anapatsidwa zodabwitsa zambiri.

Nthawiyi, Akatswiri a optogenetically analimbikitsa maselo mwachisawawa granule zina mbewa, koma ena, pa maphunziro, kuti akakhale kukula kwa gulu loyimba okhudza mitsempha kuti encodes kukumbukira mantha. mbewa izi anasonyeza zochepa khalidwe yozizira koopsa pamene anabwerera ku khola chomwecho kuposa ena amene sanalandire kukondoweza. Koma kukondoweza kwa analenganso kukumbukira yokumba mantha, moti nyama chisanu mu zinthu zina, kwambiri.

Chopinga wa mwachisawawa maselo granule anali zotsatira yemweyo, kutanthauza kuti chabe bongo chiwerengero ochuluka mu gulu loyimba ndi zinasokoneza luso nyamazo kukumbukira kukumbukira mantha. Zimene anapezazi mogwirizana ndi anthu kuphunzira yoyamba, amene anasonyeza kuti inhibiting kapena zolimbikitsa granule cell ntchito impairs kuphunzira contextual.

Kumvetsa chifukwa ichi chingakhale, Akatswiri a anachita wina mndandanda wa zinthu zatsopano, ntchito microelectrodes kulemba ntchito ochuluka mu magawo a minofu hippocampal. zatsopano zimenezi zinasonyeza kuti optogenetic kukondoweza kwa maselo granule umabala Poyankha wangwiro mu interneurons loyandikana, amene kumasula ochepetsera neurotransmitter GABA.

Motero, ndi mfuti ya maselo granule kumabweretsa interneurons ochepetsera, amene zichepetse maselo pafupi granule ndi kuwaletsa kulowa gulu loyimba. Mwa njira iyi, interneurons kuoneka ziziyenda kukumbukira kumene-popangidwa ndi malamulo chiwerengero ndi kugawa maselo granule nawo kukumbukira kabisidwe. Mphamvu kapena chonena mwachisawawa maselo granule akukhumudwa ndondomekoyi ndi kumasintha chiwerengero cha maselo granule, amene akhoza kupanga kukumbukira latsopano wosakhazikika.

"M'nkhaniyi, ife anagwiritsa ntchito yosavuta yokumbukira, kukumbukira nkhani okhudza malo, koma vuto ndi kuphunzira mmene zinachitikira zovuta ambiri analoweza, ndi mmene ubongo ikuchita ndi kusunga zokumana angapo,"Anati Mendez. "Kumvetsa mafunso awa zingatithandize kumvetsa malire a mphamvu yosungirako bongo."

Reference

Stefanelli, T., neri Al. (2016). Hippocampal Somatostatin Interneurons Control kukula kwa okhudza mitsempha Memory Ensembles. minyewa, 89: 1-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.01.024 [Kudalirika]

guardian.co.uk © Guardian News & Media Limited 2010