choonadi kuthamangira uko: chifukwa conspiracies kufalitsa mofulumira kuposa

The truth is rushing out there: why conspiracies spread faster than ever

kuchokera 9/11 kuti kuukira Paris, kuchokera Ebola kuti Isisi, zonse zazikulu zinachitika padziko lonse amakopa lolingana potsimikizira-Nkhani ndi 'truthers', ena kotero onse pamodzi kuphatikiza omwe iwo pa miyoyo ya anthu. Kodi ubongo wathu basi anatumizanso lamya kukhulupirira, monga buku latsopano ananena? Ndipo zinatheka kuganiza makamaka kopindulitsa?


Zoyendetsedwa ndi Guardian.co.ukNkhaniyi lotchedwa “choonadi kuthamangira uko: chifukwa conspiracies kufalitsa mofulumira kuposa” linalembedwa ndi David Shariatmadari, pakuti The Guardian Loweruka 26 December 2015 10.00 UTC

"Ine ndikukumbukira kuwerenga za Zongoganizira Final VII, filimu zinandilimbikitsa yoyang'ana kutsogolo kwa. anga oyamba anali kukhumudwa kuti zaka awiri -. chifukwa ndiye ife tikadakhala m'manja mwa asilikali "Zinali 2004, ndi Mateyu Elliott anali mozama. Elliott, ku San Antonio, Texas, poyamba akokedwa ndi mfundo chiwembu pamene iye anali 19, patachitika 9/11. "Ndinkaona chozamachi kuti ife anaukira,"Iye anati lero. Kuti atsale ndi zomveka zimene zinachitika anapeza ndi wotchuka "truther" kayendedwe, panopa maganizo amene agwira mlandu nkhanza pa khomo la boma US.

"Mmene kwambiri mfundo chiwembu ake ali, chinthu chimodzi nthawi zonse kumabweretsa wina, kotero kumeneko Ndinatsimikiza kuti gulu chigamulo lotchedwa New World Order adalonga bzense. Akatero chotani malamulo achisilikali ndi kuchotsa kotheratu ufulu wathu,"Iye anati. A Patatha zaka, Elliott, tsopano 34, ndi "akuchira" chiwembu theorist, popeza wathawa pa worldview kuti nthawi zonse posits ena covert, mphamvu akuchita motsutsana ndi zofuna za anthu wamba. zinasintha pang'onopang'ono, koma iye akuganiza mosiyana tsopano. "Inu simungakhoze nkomwe ambiri 50 states kugwirizana pa zinthu. zabwino zonse wotsimikizika ku Ulaya ndi ku Asia kufika pa bolodi. "

Elliott anachita ululu wa 9/11 anali kutali kwachilendo. kuukira anali n'kale lonse, chosakaza motero, kuti ambiri a ife ankavutika zomveka a iwo. Malipoti oyambirira anali osokonezeka kapena zosokoneza: Ndipo ena ankachitira Baibulo boma la zochitika sankakhulupirira. A chiwerengero cha anthu nawonso plumped Kuti mumve zimene zinafuna fakery ndi mgwirizano pamlingo waukulu.

Izi ziyenera kutidabwitsa: ndi chitsanzo kuti akubwerezedwa iliyonse mantha lonse, ndipo patachitika kuukira Paris, izo wakhala anakulira mutu wake kachiwiri. Mkati mwa tsiku la zigawenga pa likulu French, amakhala anali kukangana lofalitsidwa kuti anali ntchito ya boma - otchedwa "mbendera onyenga" ntchito. Titero ndi kupumula pa mfundo yoti Isisi ndi dala maboma kumadzulo. posachedwapa, loya kwa banja la Syed Farook, mmodzi wa San Bernardino oponya mivi, Ndinkachita zimenezi chifukwa conspiratorial nkhambakamwa pamene iye anati: "Pali zambiri zolinga pa nthawi ino kutsindika kapena kulenga zochitika kuti adzachititsa ulamuliro mfuti kapena tsankho kapena chidani cha m'dera Muslim."

Kuzungulira koloko Kuphunzira za zochitika padziko lonse zikutanthauza kuti pali chakudya nthawi zonse vuto ndi chisokonezeko ife kutanthauzira. Nkhani za zingwe kuti kukokedwa ndi manja chobisika ndi chakudya zosangalatsa wathu, kuchokera Spectre a Blofeld kuti chiwembucho Baroque wa London kazitape, mmodzi wa anthu alitcha masewero British wa chaka, amene kumasuliridwa mu chitsanzo chochititsa chidwi cha kalembedwe akhate. Izo si kukhulupirira ziphunzitso chiwembu likupitirirabe ponseponse, limati mavairasi swami, pulofesa wa za maganizo a chikhalidwe pa Anglia Ruskin yunivesite: pamene kafukufuku wakhala zisanachitidwe yet, iye anandiuza, pali zambiri umboni anecdotal kwa amati kukhulupirira conspiracies wakhala mwachilungamo khola zomalizira theka zaka zoposa. Chimene chasintha, Komabe, ndi changu chimene ziphunzitso zatsopano anapanga. "Ndi chizindikiro cha dziko mochuluka Integrated,"Iye anati. The Intaneti kufulumizitsa chirichonse mmwamba, kulola chiwembu okonda anthu kugwirizana ndi zopanga maganizo awo. Motsutsana, panapita miyezi kwa ziphunzitso za Pearl Harbor kukhala.

Karen Douglas, zamaganizo paphwando lina, likumveka mfundo imeneyi. "Kulankhulana dongosolo Anthu zasintha kwambiri kwambiri m'zaka zingapo zapitazi. Izo ziri chabe zosavuta kwa anthu kupeza wodziwa zambiri chiwembu ngakhale ndi mbewu wamng'ono wa chikaiko nkhani boma. Ndi zovuta kwambiri pa Intaneti ndi kupeza anthu ena amene amaganiza monga momwe inu. "

Ndi aliyense amakonda umenewu maganizo, kapena ndi okhawo a mphonje kwambiri? Douglas Wansembeyu akuvomereza ndi ambiri kuposa ambiri a ife tikuzindikira. "kafukufuku Recent wasonyeza kuti pafupifupi theka la America ndikukhulupirira chimodzi chiphunzitso chiwembu,"Iye anati. "Inu mukuyang'ana pa anthu ambiri; anthu akhoza kubwera kudutsa mumsewu. "

Ndicho komanso maganizo a Rob Brotherton, amene buku latsopano, Maganizo Muzisamala, ikufotokoza makhalidwe amene odana ife chikhulupiriro cha conspiracies. Iye akuchenjeza ndi oweruza milandu, chifukwa tonsefe maganizo Muzisamala - ndi zifukwa zomveka. Tingamudziwe dongosolo ndi kukhala tcheru kumuopseza zotheka ndi zimene zinatithandiza kupulumuka m'dziko limene chikhalidwe zambiri kukatenga inu. "Mabuku Mwandichitira chiwembu chiphunzitso amakonda kubwera ku bukhu maganizo a debunking iwo. Ndinkafuna kutenga njira ina, kuikana nkhani lonse ngati ziphunzitso ndi zoona kapena zabodza ndi kubwera pa icho kuchokera pa kaonedwe ka zamaganizo,"Iye anati. "The intentionality kukondera, ndi Kugwirizana kukondera, chitsimikiziro kukondera. Tili quirks izi anamanga m'maganizo athu zimene zimatipangitsa kukhulupirira zinthu lodabwitsa mosazindikira ndicho chifukwa ife tikukhulupirira izo. "

Ben Whishaw London kazitape
Ben Whishaw mu London kazitape, mmodzi wa anthu alitcha masewero British wa chaka, amene kumasuliridwa mu chitsanzo chochititsa chidwi cha kalembedwe akhate. Chithunzi: BBC / WTTV

"Pamene chilichonse osokoneza zimachitika, tili kukondera izi kwa poganiza kuti Mulungu anafuna - winawake anapanga, kuti panali mtundu wina wa cholinga kapena bungwe kuseri kwa icho, osati poganiza kuti anali mwangozi chabe, kapena chisokonezo, kapena zotsatira posakonzekera chinachake. "Izi kukondera intentionality, Brotherton limati, angathe kuonedwa kwa ana aang'ono. "Ngati mudzapempha mwana wamng'ono chifukwa winawake anayetsemula, mwana amaganiza kuti iwo ankachitira izo cholinga, kuti munthuyo ayenera amasangalala sneezing. Ndi pokhapokha ndi zaka zinayi kapena zisanu kuti tidzayamba kuphunzira kuti si zonse kuti aliyense Kodi cholinga. Ife tiri okhoza kunyalanyaza kuti chiweruzo zodziwikiratu. Koma kafukufuku wasonyeza kuti akadali amakhala nafe ngakhale mukadzakula. "

Mwachitsanzo, Kafukufuku wasonyeza kuti pamene anthu kumwa mowa, m'posavuta kuti amasulire zochita osokoneza kuti ali dala. "Kotero ngati inu muli pa malo omwera ndi wina jostles inu ndi amatayika chakumwa wanu, ngati ndi chakumwa lanu loyamba, inu mukhoza kulemba izo ngati kulakwitsa wosalakwa. Koma ngati muli zakumwa ochepa, ndiye inu muli zambiri ndikuganiza iwo ankachitira izo cholinga, kuti chinali chochitika aukali. "

Ngati makhalidwe ambiri umunthu, proneness kuti intentionality kukondera zimasiyanasiyana kudutsa anthu. "Anthu ena kuti atengeke kuposa ena." Ndipo, Brotherton anafotokoza, pali waung'ono koma odalirika malumikizanidwe pakati pa chiwopsezo ndi kukhulupirira ziphunzitso chiwembu.

zinthu zina komanso mbali, kumene. Ryan, amene anapempha kuti Ine sanatchule dzina lake lomaliza, zochita za umodzi wachikoka munthu zinali zofunika. Zinali Johnny, bwenzi ndi bandmate, amene anamuonetsa mabuku ndi ma CD za boma dziko ndi "ankatumikira monga mphunzitsi wa mitundu". Pa nthawi yomweyo monga inducting iye ku gulu truther, "Iye anali kuyambitsa ine nyimbo Ndikufuna sanamvepo ndipo ankakonda". Kutalika kwa nkhani, Ryan limati iye anakhulupirira osiyanasiyana yotakata mfundo chiwembu, kuphatikizapo "chemtrails"- ganizo kuti kudutsa anatsala ndege muli mankhwala wonunkha anafuna kuti agonjetse kapena ululu anthu; kuti Aids ndi Ebola anaphunzitsidwa ndi maboma kulamulira anthu; kuti mwezi landings anali ananamizira; kuti chinthu yotengedwa apricots otchedwa laetrile anali mankhwala ochiza matenda a khansa, koma anali oletsedwa ndi FDA ndi zimangochitika quackery kuteteza zofuna za Big Pharma. "Ine sefani ubale wanga ndi banja langa zoipa. Izo nthawizonse amene mumakonda kwambiri kuti mukufuna 'kudzuka'. Ine anatsirizira kutsutsana ndizofunikira manyazi ndi kutsutsana,"Iye anati.

Koma kupyola kuvutika zinapangitsa kuti anthu amuyandikire, anali Ryan zikhulupiriro wotsutsa chi Orthodox zoipa? Karen Douglas ndi Chenjerani rubbishing onse chiwembu theorising oopsa. "Kuganiza njira kuti, ayenera kuti ena zotsatira zabwino. Ngati aliyense anapita mozungulira monga kuvomereza zimene anauzidwa ndi maboma, akuluakulu, makampani opanga mankhwala, aliyense, ndiye gulu la nkhosa, kwenikweni ". Mbali inayi, zotsatira mfundo zina pa khalidwe akhoza sichikupindulitsani. kafukufuku Douglas mwiniyo [kerala Download] zasonyeza kuti kukhudzana ndi lingaliro kuti boma la British anali nawo imfa ya Mfumukazi Diana cholinga yafupika anthu kuchita ndale. Mofananamo, anthu amene lemba ponena kuti kusintha kwa nyengo anali wabodza asayansi kufunafuna ndalama zinali zokayikitsa kuti akufuna kuchitapo kanthu pofuna kuchepetsa mpweya zotsalira awo. ndipo odana ndi katemera chiwembu nkhani kupanga anthu zokayikitsa katemera ana awo, bwino anthu chiopsezo thanzi.

Tiyenera kuyesetsa kuthetseratu ziphunzitso chiwembu kunja, ndiye? Part mfundo Brotherton ndi kuti iwo zimachititsa kuti mwachibadwa njira ubongo wathu zayambika. Si zokhazo, koma kuyesera kutsutsa iwo akhoza muzikhosomola. "Nthawi iliyonse mungayambe kuyesera debunk ziphunzitso chiwembu, anthu amene amakhulupirira, ndizo ndendende chimene iwo amaganiza ngati chiwembucho anali weniweni,"Iye anati.

Swami sakuona. "Experimental ntchito kuti ife tachita limasonyeza kuti ndizotheka kuchepetsa conspiracist ideation." Kodi? Swami anapeza kuti anthu amene anali akulimbikitsidwa kuganizira analytically pa ntchito wapakamwa anali zokayikitsa kuvomereza ziphunzitso chiwembu mtsogolomo. iye, izi mawuwa yofunika kuthekera kwambiri kwa maphunziro. "Njira yabwino kwambiri, pa mlingo societal, kufalitsa maganizo mawunikidwe, kuphunzitsa luso lotha kuganiza mozama. "Koma si onse. Pamene anthu akhala ndi chikhulupiriro mwa owayimilira, kumvetsa zimene akuchita ndi kukhulupirira kuti iwo si achinyengo, ali zokayikitsa kukhulupirira coverups. Ndicho chifukwa chilungamo ndale ayenera kukhala kumutsimikizira pakufunika kutero - ndi chilungamo makampani, kwambiri. "Anthu ambiri amakhala ndi vuto kuvomera bungwe lalikulu kapena boma nkhani chochitika, chifukwa iwo anawona ngati wosadalirika, iwo anawona ngati abodza,"Akunenetsa swami.

Kukweza kuphunzitsa ndi kusintha chikhalidwe ndale ndi malonda Mosakayikira kuthandiza. Koma ziphunzitso chiwembu akhoza kukanidwa zifukwa munthu, kwambiri. view Ryan anasintha ndi imfa ya wake "mphunzitsi".

"Ine ngati atasiya kucheza ndi Johnny Atakwatira ndipo anali ndi mwana,"Iye anati. "Iye anali kuyamba kutali ndi mu izo, ndipo ine sindinkakhoza kukhala ndi olimbitsa maganizo kuchita "Iye anayamba kuyang'ana kuti mudziwe zina -. zochepa zosangalatsa, koma anthu ambiri ndithu. "Ine ndinayang'ana pa anthu kutsutsana pa mlingo national, kwa pulezidenti Woyenera. Palibe njira izi anyamata kulankhula platitudes ndi generalizations akhoza kwenikweni chikuchititsa chiwembu lonse ukapolo kapena kundipha. Iwo sanali kuchita ntchito makamaka chabwino kapena, kuganizira momwe osangalala ndinkakhala moyo wanga.

"Umenewo unali epiphany, kwenikweni. Ndatuluka. Ndinasangalala. Palibe chilango ndi mdima ananeneratu nalonjezana adadza. "Pakuti Ryan, ndi ndiye 27, ulendo chodabwitsa chinali pa. M'dziko limene zinamenyanitsa iye ndi magulu oipa anali kuchonderera onse a kazitape sewero. Koma moyo weniweniwo anali kupatula ngati nkhani - ndi njira zina zambiri ogwetsa. Kodi mukuganiza ndi mphamvu kwenikweni kuumba zinthu? "Ambiri zoipa mu dziko masiku ano - bwino, Ndikufuna izo kwa kulephera ndi dyera. Kupanda chifundo. "

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