Asayansi analenga "Atlas a Brain"

Scientists Have Created an “Atlas of the Brain”

Ntchito kulingalira ubongo, Asayansi amanga mapu kuonetsa mmene mawu ndi matanthauzo ake awa akuimira kudutsa m'madera osiyanasiyana a ubongo


Zoyendetsedwa ndi Guardian.co.ukNkhaniyi lotchedwa “Asayansi ya ubongo kulenga 'Buku la mapu' kusonyeza mmene mawu amachitika ubongo” linalembedwa ndi Ian Chitsanzo Science mkonzi, pakuti theguardian.com Lachitatu 27 April 2016 17.00 UTC

Asayansi analenga "Buku la mapu a ubongo" timaona mmene matanthauzo a mawu amene anakonza kudutsa m'madera osiyanasiyana limba.

Ngati zoyala zokongola anaika pa kotekisi ndi, ndi kusonyezedwa Buku la mapu a mitundu utawaleza mmene mawu ena ndi mfundo iwo auze akhoza m'magulumagulu mu clumps wa nkhani woyera.

"Cholinga chathu chinali kumanga chimphona Buku la mapu zosonyeza kuti mbali imodzi yokha ya chinenero ankayimiridwa mu ubongo, Pankhaniyi manenedwe, kapena matanthauzo a mawu,"Anati Jack wochirimika, ndi neuroscientist pa University of California, Berkeley.

No ubongo dera limodzi agwira mawu amodzi kapena lingaliro. A single ubongo malo amagwirizana ndi chiwerengero cha mawu okhudzana. Ndipo liwu lililonse single umaunikira mawanga zosiyanasiyana ubongo. Pamodzi iwo amapanga Intaneti oimira matanthauzo a liwu lililonse timagwiritsa ntchito: moyo ndi chikondi; imfa ndi misonkho; mitambo, Florida ndi kamisolo. Onse kuyatsa Intaneti awo.

Asayansi analenga zokambirana mapu kukondera ziti ubongo anatani atamva mawu osiyanasiyana.

Ankafotokozedwa ngati "ulendo de A mphamvu" ndi kafukufuku amene sankachita nawo phunzirolo, Atlas likuwonetsa momwe ano kulingalira angasinthe Timadziŵa mmene ubongo amachita ena ntchito zake zofunika kwambiri. Ndi patsogolo zambiri, luso akanakhoza kukhudza pa mankhwala ndi zinthu zina.

"N'zotheka kuti njira imeneyi angagwiritsidwe ntchito decode zokhudza zimene mawu munthu akumva, kuwerenga, kapena mwina kuganiza,"Anati Alexander Huth, mlembi woyamba pa phunzirolo. ntchito limodzi angathe adzakhala chinenero decoder kuti akhoza kulola anthu chete ndi matenda owononga neurone kapena zokhoma mu syndrome kulankhula kupyolera kompyuta.

Polenga Buku la mapu, asayansi analemba ubongo ntchito anthu pamene iwo anamvera nkhani kuwerenga kuchokera pa Kadziwotche Radio Hour, wailesi bwanji US. Kenako chikufanana ndi zolemba za nkhani deta ndi ntchito ubongo kusonyeza momwe magulu a mawu ena ofanana zinayambitsa mayankho ubongo mu 50,000 kuti 80,000 mtola-kakulidwe mawanga onse pa kotekisi oziziritsa.

Huth ntchito nkhani za The Kadziwotche Radio Hour chifukwa iwo ndi waufupi ndi kuyenera. The zambiri losangalatsa nkhani, m'pamenenso asayansi zingakhale kuti anthu kuti scanned unkafuna pa mawu, osati kutengeka pa. anthu asanu ndi awiri anamvetsera kwa maola awiri nkhani iliyonse. Per munthu, anakwana kumva ziri 25,000 mawu- ndipo woposa 3,000 mawu osiyanasiyana – ngati iwo ayika mu sikana wa.

The Buku la mapu ikusonyeza mmene mawu ndi mawu okhudzana kusonyeza zigawo chomwecho ubongo. Mwachitsanzo, kumanzere-dzanja la ubongo, pamwamba khutu, ndi chimodzi mwa zigawo ting'onoting'ono loimira mawu "wovulalayo". Dera amatipatsa "kuphedwa", "Olakwa", "Anaphedwa" ndi "anavomereza". Kumbali ya dzanja lamanja ubongo, pafupi pamwamba pa mutu, ndi imodzi mwa malo ubongo adamulowetsa ndi mawu banja: "Mkazi", "Mwamuna", "Ana", "Makolo".

Liwu lililonse ukufanizidwa ndi malo oposa chifukwa mawu amakhala ndi matanthauzo ambiri. Mbali ina ya ubongo, mwachitsanzo, molondola Yankho mawu "pamwamba", komanso mawu ena ofotokoza zovala. Koma mawu "pamwamba" imayendetsa m'madera ena ambiri. Mmodzi wa iwo poyankha manambala ndi miyezo, wina nyumba ndi malo. The asayansi analenga webusaiti zokambirana kumene anthu akhoza kufufuza Buku la mapu ubongo.

mochititsa, ndi atlases ubongo zinali zofanana kwa ophunzira onse, kutanthauza kuti ubongo wawo bungwe matanthauzo a mawu chimodzimodzi. Asayansi okha scanned amuna asanu ndi akazi awiri, Komabe. Onse ali mbadwa okamba English, ndi awiri analemba kuphunzira m'magazini Nature. N'zotheka kwambiri kuti anthu amitundu yosiyanasiyana adzakhala ndi osiyana zamalankhulidwe ubongo atlases.

Zida Buku la mapu a, Ofufuza tsopano n'kudziwa pamodzi Intaneti ubongo oimira mfundo mwamphamvu osiyana, kwa manambala kupha ndi chipembedzo. "Ganizo kupha ankayimiridwa kwambiri mu ubongo,"Wochirimika anati.

Ntchito ulendo womwewo deta, gulu wayamba ntchito pa atlases zatsopano zosonyeza kuti ubongo magwiridwe mudziwe zinthu zina chinenero, kuchokera phonemes kuti malembedwe. A Buku la mapu ubongo kwa dongosolo Nkhani chotero mpaka sizinatheke, Komabe. "Nthawi iliyonse ife anabwera ndi ya mbali Nkhani, tifunika anauza si anakhala mbali Nkhani,"Anati wochirimika.

Uri Hasson, ndi neuroscientist pa University Princeton, kutamandidwa ntchito. Mosiyana ndi maphunziro ambiri anayang'ana pa ntchito ubongo pamene mawu lakutali kapena chilango zinanenedwa, gulu wochirimika anali kuunikira mmene ubongo ntchito mu zochitika zenizeni dziko, iye anati. Chotsatira, iye anati, anali kulenga kwambiri mabuku yeniyeni zamalankhulidwe ubongo Buku la mapu. pamapeto, Hasson amakhulupirira kudzakhala kotheka kuti angakwanitse mawu munthu akuganiza ntchito ubongo wawo. Zidzafunike zikuyenela kwakukulu. Mmodzi more chosaopsa ntchito adzaona ntchito ubongo ntchito kuona ngati mauthenga ndale akhala bwino Zikuvumbulutsidwa kwa anthu. "Pali tanthauzo zambiri, ndipo ife sadzachitanso wokhudza pamwamba,"Iye anati.

Lorraine Tyler, ndi neuroscientist chidziwitso ndi mutu wa Centre kwa Kulankhula, Language ndi Brain pa University Cambridge anati kafukufuku anali "ulendo de A mphamvu ukulu ndi njira". Koma Buku la mapu ubongo maonekedwe panopa si analanda kusiyana zabwino matanthauzo mawu. Tengani mawu akuti "tebulo". Iwo akhoza kukhala membala wa magulu osiyanasiyana, anati Tyler. "Zimakhala chakudya kuchokera, zinthu zopangidwa nkhuni, zinthu zolemera, zinthu zokhudza miyendo inayi, sanali zamoyo zinthu, ndi zina zotero. mtundu uwu mudziwe zamalankhulidwe limene limathandiza mawu ntchito flexibly atayika pomalizira,"Iye anati. "Pamene kafukufuku iyi ndi njira-kumatula mu ukulu, pali kwambiri kuphunzira mmene manenedwe ankayimiridwa mu ubongo. "

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