Latsopano chiphunzitso majini mukhoza kukonza njira kumvetsa nzeru za anthu

New genetic theory might pave way to understanding human intelligence

 

Zoyendetsedwa ndi Guardian.co.ukNkhaniyi lotchedwa “Latsopano chiphunzitso majini mukhoza kukonza njira kumvetsa nzeru za anthu” was written by Tim Radford, pakuti The Guardian Lolemba 21 December 2015 16.27 UTC

British scientists believe they have made a huge step forward in the understanding of the mechanisms of human intelligence. That genetic inheritance must play some part has never been disputed. Despite occasional claims later dismissed, no-one has yet produced a single gene that controls intelligence.

But Michael Johnson of Imperial College London, a consultant neurologist and colleagues report in Nature Neuroscience that they may have discovered a very different answer: two networks of genes, perhaps controlled by some master regulatory system, lie behind the human gift for lateral thinking, mental arithmetic, pub quizzes, strategic planning, cryptic crosswords and the ability to laugh at limericks.

As usual, kafukufuku ngati zikutipatsa mafunso zingakhale ndale-yodzaza za chikhalidwe cha nzeru. "Intelligence lili ndi muyeso wa luso losiyanasiyana chidziwitso ndi momwe iwo anagawira kwa anthu ndi. Izo sizikugwirizana iliyonse chinthu chimodzi. Koma ndi zoyezeka,"Dr Johnson anati.

About 40% ya kusintha mu nzeru anafotokoza chifukwa cholowa. The zinthu zina simunayambe ena. Koma asayansi kuukitsa kuthekera lakutali zida zambiri watsopano angathe kuyambitsa njira kusintha nzeru za anthu.

"Ganizo pamapeto pake ntchito mankhwala bwanji ntchito chidziwitso sichiri mwa njira zatsopano. Tonse kumwa khofi kusintha ntchito yathu chidziwitso,"Dr Johnson anati. "Ndi za kumvetsa njira zokhudza luso chidziwitso onse mu umoyo ndi matenda, makamaka matenda kotero tsiku lina tikhoza kuthandiza anthu olumala kukwaniritsa angathe. Izi ndi zofunika kwambiri. "

The Intaneti awiri, kudziwika monga M1 ndipo M3, limodzi ndi pafupifupi 1000 majini, zina ndi zoposa 100, nawonso amathandiza pa matenda neurodevelopmental monga khunyu, akuchita misala ndipo satha kulankhula bwinobwino sipekitiramu matenda. ntchito sizikuoneka zimalowana, ndi udindo wa aliyense maukonde ngakhale ndi kuthetsedwa.

"Ife tikudziwa kuti chibadwa chimachititsa kwambiri nzeru koma mpaka pano simunaidziwe amene majini ndi zogwirizana. kafukufuku ikufotokoza za ena mwa chibadwa nawo nzeru za anthu ndi momwe iwo kucheza ndi mzake,"Dr Johnson anati. "Kodi zosangalatsa za izi kuti majini tapeza ndi kungakuthandizeni lamulo wamba, kutanthauza kuti zingakhale tikhoza kusintha wonse ya majini amene amachita zogwirizana nzeru za anthu. "

Kupezeka ndi pangano mphamvu ya chipiriro, odwala ndi khamu kukukhala yaikulu deta. The Imperial College asayansi anayamba ndi umboni wochokera 100 mbewa ubongo, 122 zitsanzo za ubongo wa munthu, ndi 102 lonse ubongo anthu anasunga postmortem. zizindikiro chotero cha kulumikiza majini pakati pa mavuto neurodevelopmental kapena kukumbukira ndi kumvetsa ndiye anali kufufuzidwa ndi mbiri 6,732 anthu mu "Generation Scotland" phunziro thanzi banja, amene amalondola mbiri ya moyo wa zikwizikwi za antchito odzipereka, ndipo abwerezedwa 1,003 wathanzi anthu amene anadzipereka kutenga nawo mbali mu phunziro wotchedwa Lothian Kubadwa gululo 1936.

Iwo imawunikidwa osiyanasiyana luso chidziwitso - pakati pawo kukumbukira, chidwi, processing liwiro ndi kulingalira - ndiyeno ophatikizana zotsatira zambiri majini kupatsidwa ndi anthu athanzi amene anatenga mayesero IQ, ndi kwa anthu satha kulankhula bwinobwino sipekitiramu chisokonezo ndi chilema aluntha. Zina kafukufuku zinali maphunziro a anthu amene akukonza neurosurgery khunyu.

Ndiye asayansi ndiye itagwiritsidwa ntchito kompyuta mphamvu yaikulu kuona kuti deta akhoza kuwauza. Iwo anapeza kuti majini zimene zinapangitsa luntha ndi luso la anthu athanzi ndiwo yomweyo kuti chakhungu luso chidziwitso ndipo anamupangitsa khunyu pamene mutated. Ngati ofufuza kumvetsa zimene apite cholakwika interplay la cholowa kuti akukamba nzeru kapena kukumbukira, iwo akhoze - kuthekera kwa mphindi uli kokha ongolankhula - athe kuyambitsa njira zatsopano kupulumutsa thandizo.

"Makhalidwe monga nzeru zimatsatira gulu lalikulu la anthu ntchito pamodzi – ngati timu ya mpira wapangidwa osewera mu malo osiyana,"Iye anati. "Tidapeza kuti ena mwa chibadwa awa alipo amene amayambitsa aakulu ubwana isanayambike khunyu kapena kulumala aluntha,"

Akatswiri mwina apeza dziwe la osewera mu timu: ali ndi kuzindikira momwe osewera co-ntchito, ndiwo osewera ofunika n'zimene masewera ndi inkaimbidwa.

"Patapita nthawi, ife tikuyembekeza kuti mtundu umenewu kusanthula adzapereka nzimene mu mankhwala bwino matenda neurodevelopmental monga khunyu, ndipo ameliorate kapena kuchitira impairments chidziwitso kugwirizana ndi matenda amenewa zoipa. "

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