Kodi yolowera Mars

How to colonize Mars

 

Zoyendetsedwa ndi Guardian.co.ukNkhaniyi lotchedwa “Kodi yolowera Mars” linalembedwa ndi Sara Bruhns ndi Yakobo Haqq-Misra, pakuti theguardian.com pa Thursday 5 November 2015 10.40 UTC

NASA wakhala anamasulidwa lipoti munali mwatsatanetsatane zolinga munthu ntchito Mars. Zimenezi ndi kuleza ubwenzi cholinga NASA ndi lipoti akulongosola mavuto a Mars kufufuza mu magawo atatu. Choyamba, 'Dziko kudalira', siteji tikunena kafukufuku atakwera Mayiko Space Station. The 'Kutsimikizira Ground' siteji amaika anthu mwakuya danga kufufuza, pamene otsala masiku angapo kuchokera Lapansi. The 'Lapansi Independent' siteji anamaliza kulemba ndondomeko ndi kupeza anthu padziko Mars.

NASA si yekha gulu akukonzekera kutumiza anthu wofiira dziko. SpaceX, Dennis Tito a Kudzoza Mars Foundation, ndi Mars Mmodzi Onse anasonyeza ndi chochita kuyendera ndi zina ngakhale yolowera Mars.

Kusanathe anthu kapena mabungwe anayamba akuyendayenda ndipo anakhazikitsa midzi yake, ambiguities mu mayiko lokhudza danga kufufuza ndi kuthetsa iyenera kumveketsedwa ndi anatsimikiza. Lingathe ndalama, ndalama ndi andale, kwa kunyalanyaza nkhani ya ulamuliro m'malere kwambiri kulola awa ntchito zolinga kukhala zoposa.

Current danga kufufuza mfundo makamaka kumatanthauza ndi M'mlengalenga Pangano, zinalembedwa 1967. Izi Pangano mipiringidzo yake signatories ku khazikitsa zida zoopsa m'malere, zimasokoneza ntchito danga kuti mtendere zolinga, limaletsa mtundu uliwonse kuchokera amati dziko iliyonse zakuthambo (limatchedwa 'sanali appropriation mfundo'), ndipo amanena kuti danga 'm'chigawo cha anthu onse'.

The m'mlengalenga Pangano linalembedwa pamaso anthu anafika pa Moon, monga Chidani kusagwirizana wokwera, ndipo chotero analibe zida kutsogolera njira danga kufufuza. Ambiri Akumakambirananso za Pangano mosakayikira kofunika, monga lamulo la zida zoopsa, ndi kugwiritsa ntchito malo yekha mtendere zolinga. Komabe, Mtheradi lamulo pa mfumu zonena ndi sanali appropriation mfundo zingachititse kuti tsogolo nkhondo.

Ngakhale zonse zokhudza aliyense akufuna anthu umishonare ku Mars (kaya pagulu kapena pamalo obisika) adakali pansi chitukuko, zofunika chiyembekezo cha zikuloŵerera, monga kuyenera chabe akuyendayenda, zikutipatsa nkhawa. The sanali appropriation mfundo za m'mlengalenga panganoli limaletsa 'appropriation ndi zoti ya ulamuliro, pogwiritsa ntchito kapena ntchito, kapena mwa njira ina iliyonse '. Zimenezi zikusonyeza kuti mchitidwe wa kulamulira lokha losemphana ndi Pangano. Kodi mabungwe awa akufuna yolowera popanda amati ulamuliro ndi idzathetsedwe ndi kofunika kwambiri nkhani kusankha pa pamaso ankafika pa Mars.

Mmodzi angathe njira kuthetsa zimenezi ndi moganizira zachuma amanena kuti chuma pa Mars osati dziko lenilenilo. Aboma ndi maphwando mwina kutera pa Mars ndi kukhazikitsa maziko zimene dziko lawo malamulo a ntchito kwa onse okhala ndi alendo ngati mmene alipo malamulo amene amalamulira mayiko Space Station. N'kuthekanso kukhazikitsa malire malo kumene iwo amanena yekha chuma ufulu ndi khalidwe sayansi. Komabe, oterowo 'yekha chuma zone' analibe chonena kuti ulamuliro. A Mars wokhala chilichonse njuchi mwina pochitika kudutsa m'malo amenewa n'kupita, ndipo akanakhoza ngakhale kukhazikitsa wina m'munsi awo. Komabe, onse extractable chuma ali mu zone ali yekha ufulu choyambirira claimant. Izi maganizo ndi njira kukwaniritsa chuma kusonkhanitsa zolinga ambiri panopa Mars umishonare, chilolezo zolinga kulamulira Zitatero, ndi kukwaniritsa zofunika za m'mlengalenga Pangano.

Ambiri amalimbikitsa Mars kulamulira umishonare angatsutse kuti ngati munthu umishonare chifuniro irreversibly amaipitsa chilengedwe cha Mars, kuvulaza kafukufuku wa sayansi komanso zisawononge okongola a dzikoli. Pofuna awa nkhawa, ndi mapulaneti paki dongosolo ofanana Dziko la National Park dongosolo akanakhoza udzakhazikitsidwa. Planetary m'mapaki akadziŵika ndi malamulo mogwirizana ndi Muzifunsa Lapansi asayansi padziko lonse-kutsatira chitsanzo amaphunziro pamodzi azitha NASA a decadal kafukufuku Posankha danga umishonare. Ena m'mapaki angakhale ndi okhawo sayansi zinthu, pamene ena akhoza kukhala chinthu zokongoletsa lakuti kusunga Mars 'chilengedwe.

Kuvomereza pa dongosolo monga chonchi akanapereka mtendere patsogolo. Komabe, nthawi zonse padzakhala zazing'ono mikangano atsamunda, makamaka ngati sanali appropriation mfundo ndi kugwira pamodzi ndi kulamulira, palibe mtundu kapena gulu athe kusonyeza kudziletsa yekha basi zachuma zone. A osakhalitsa milandu dongosolo kungakhale njira yabwino mothetsa kusamvana pakati pa atsamunda Mars popanda yokhudza la International Court of Justice Padziko Lapansi. Pamene awiri madera anabwera zosemphana ndi mzake, lawolo angamveke ndipo anatsimikiza ndi khoti ongokhala oimira ena madera. Chitsanzo limalola atsamunda zofuna kuti akasungidwe ndi nkani yekha pakati atsamunda.

Ndondomeko anafotokoza kumwamba n'kutheka patsogolo. Komabe, M'pofunika kwambiri kwa mitundu ndi mabungwe kulowa kukambirana za momwe kupitiriza. Alipo ndondomeko yolowera Mars ndiribe analankhula mmene idzayankha nkhani ya amati ulamuliro. Koma bungwe lirilonse pansi pa ulamuliro wa mtundu mbali ya m'mlengalenga Pangano ayenera kutsatira Pangano la stipulations. Mwina njira kuti adzathe tione Pangano, makamaka sanali appropriation mfundo, ndi kudziwa ngati n'kofunika akadali othandizanso. Kapena njira ndi kukonzanso Pangano kuti motsimikizira kusankha pa njira kuthetsa. Panopa zilili kwambiri osokoneza, ndi mikangano zikuoneka anatipatsira pokhapokha kulamulira boma agwirizana pa pamaso pa anthu oyambirira kufika pa Mars.

Sara Bruhns anaphunzira sayansi zakuthambo pa yunivesite ya Virginia. Iye ankafufuza ya ulamuliro pa Mars ndi Jacob Haqq-Misra (haqqmisra) kudzera Young Scientist Program pa Blue Marble Space Institute of Science. Maganizo pano ndi olemba 'yekha.

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