Zisanu Mars anapeza kusandulika kathu ka dziko wofiira

Five Mars discoveries that transformed our understanding of the red planet

 

Zoyendetsedwa ndi Guardian.co.ukNkhaniyi lotchedwa “Zisanu Mars anapeza kusandulika kathu ka dziko wofiira” linalembedwa ndi Alan Yuhas ku New York, pakuti theguardian.com pa Thursday 5 November 2015 21.15 UTC

Ndi mbala trundling pa dothi lofiira, ndi zombo kudumphira m'madzi mwa chikhalidwe ndi magulu pa ntchito zonse padziko Lapansi, Mars wapereka mmwamba chingwe zinsinsi kwa NASA mu chaka chatha. Pano pali ena akuluakulu kunapezeka 2015.

Madzi pa Mars

Kuzifuna kwa zaka zambiri, umboni wa madzi pa Mars kwenikweni anatuluka mu dziko July, ikutuluka maphompho ndi crater makoma pa chilimwe. A NASA gulu anapeza hydrated salt, yofuka mfuti kwa madzi, zinayi malo mdima Madontho Esitere pansi Martian mtunda.

NASA alibe kudziwa gwero la briny mkhalidwe otaya, amene ndilowe ku mobisa ayezi kapena aquifers, kapena condense kuchokera mu mlengalenga. M'mbuyomu umishonare aona akupangira madzi, kuphatikizapo zithunzi za kuoneka yaing'ono mitsinje ngakhalenso madzi kuthira pansi gullies, koma m'chilimwe anapeza kuti unali woyamba anatsimikizira umboni wa madzi ambiri kugwirizana ndi moyo.

Ofufuza nthawi yaitali kuti madzi ndi chofunika kwambiri ichi moyo - NASA a onena mu pofuna ndi "kutsatira madzi" - koma tsopano asayansi amasowa chochita pa momwe kufufuza mitsinje. The chidwi mbala amene kufufuza Mars kwa zaka zitatu si wosabala, ndi akanatha kuipitsanso yamvula m'madera ndi lapadziko nsikidzi kuti aphata pa zombo kudzera n'zoona. The mbala akhoza kufufuza chapatali, ndi laser kuti kodi kuyeza milozo, kapena iwo akhoza pachiswe likuyandikira kutapira ena matope.

Chikhalidwe anavula ndi mphepo ya dzuwa

Lachinayi, NASA analengeza angapo apeza za Mars 'm'mlengalenga zimene zingathandize kuthetsa chinsinsi cha zimene zinachitikira Mars, amene mabiliyoni zapitazo anali chonyowa, ofunda dziko ndi chikhalidwe 100 nthawi thicker. Today Mars youma, mphepo ndi otsatsa poizoniyu - dziko lopanda amphamvu maginito lozungulira Lapansi ndi kuteteza izo kwa mabomba pa dzuwa.

Anapeza kuchokera NASA a Maven zombo, amene anafika Mars otsiriza kugwa kufufuza ake woonda m'mlengalenga, zikuthandiza kuthetsa chinsinsi. Mission asayansi anapeza kuti dzuwa mikuntho, amene kuphulika mphamvu ndi nyese akunja, amavula kutali particles kuchokera zinkakhalira Mars pa zosaneneka mlingo.

"Mofanana ndi kuba ndalama zochepa kwa ndalama kulembetsa tsiku lililonse, imfa amakhala kwambiri pa nthawi,"Anati Bruce Jakosky, Maven amamugwiritsa ntchito yofufuza. Dzuwa mikuntho anali ambiri ndipo kwambiri kumayambiriro kwa dzuwa dongosolo la mbiri, kutanthauza kuti zochitika pa dzuwa angakhale anali akuluakulu zotsatira za madzi ndi mpweya wa Mars.

Ntchito komanso anayeza zikuchokera Mars 'm'mlengalenga kwa nthawi yoyamba kuyambira Viking umishonare 40 zaka zapitazo, ndipo anapeza chachinsinsi kuchuluka kwa fumbi zikuuluka pamwamba pa dziko. Akatswiriwo ananena izo zikhoza kukhala interplanetary fumbi - za kupsa ndi mbewu anasiyidwa ndi comets ndi asteroids kuyendayenda dzuwa dongosolo.

Ancient nyanja

Mu October, NASA asayansi apeza umboni wosonyeza nyanja kuti akanatha inatenga ku 10,000 zaka - mwina motalika kokwanira moyo kukhala mu m'madambo malo a osaya mitsinje ndi deltas. Analysis matope anasonyeza asayansi kuti madzi asefukira, onyamula miyala ndi mchenga pansi mu chachikulu aakulu crater. Pakati pa crater waima lalitali paphiri lotchedwa phiri kumimba, lokha kudzikundikira atatu mtunda wa chitayiko zigawo.

Mobisa madzi

Mu April, ndi chidwi mbala anapeza umboni wa madzi m'madzimo la Mars, ndipo analemba kutentha mu aakulu crater kuti anali basi kwa madzi brine. Pakali ananena kuti Martian nthaka Ndiyandamitsa ndi madzi amene angaletse madzi chifukwa mchere, kashiamu perchlorate, amene amakhala madzimadzi mpaka za -70C.

Auroras

Maven asayansi anapeza kuti dzuwa mphepo amalenga wofanana ndi kumpoto magetsi kudutsa ambiri swaths la Mars, chifukwa cha mkulu-mphamvu particles zosangalatsa chikhalidwe unguarded ndi maginito. Anthu akanakhoza theoretically kuona Martian auroras wofiira, buluu ndi wobiriwira mitundu pa looneka sipekitiramu, koma NASA alibe mukudziwa chimene magetsi zikhoza kuwoneka ngati, kuchokera rovers alibe zida kuwaona.

The auroras komanso amati ambiri Mars ndi kuvutika dzuwa mphepo, akukongoza umboni zoti dzuwa zochitika chinathandiza imfa ya m'mlengalenga kuzungulira dziko. Ena maginito minda kukhalabe mu zigawo kutumphuka anamwazikana padziko lapansili, koma dziko silingathe padziko lonse chishango kuti poyamba anali.

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