Zoyendetsedwa ndi Guardian.co.ukNkhaniyi lotchedwa “Tingalankhule nyama?” linalembedwa ndi David Shariatmadari, pakuti theguardian.com Lachiwiri 22 July 2014 09.00 UTC

"Kuyambira ndili wamng'ono, Ine ndinkafuna kukhala zenizeni Doctor Dolittle,"Anati Lucy Cooke, kuyambitsa latsopano BBC nkhani pa kulankhulana nyama. Ndi zongopeka ambiri a ife kugawana. Ena amakhulupirira iwo kale akwaniritsa izo - mnzake akhutitsidwa kuti iye akhoza kulankhula kutukuka ndi tabby wake, Coco.

Ndiyeno pali anthu otchuka a dziko kulankhulana nyama: Nim Chimpsky, Peter wa dolphin ndi Alex imvi Chingolopiyo African. anamanganso awo moyenera anawalenga wotchuka. Nim akuti anaphunzira pa zana mawu m'chinenero chamanja American, ndi kutulutsa ziganizo monga "amalankhula zowakomera ine Nim". Alex anatha kupempha madzi, kuŵerenga, dzina mitundu ndi kunena chimene zinthu zinali za pambuyo wokhudza ndi mulomo wake. lake mawu omalizira (iye anafa mu 2007) anali zikuoneka “Inu kukhala wabwino, tiwonana mawa. Ndimakukondani.”

Mu yojambula posachedwapa, Asayansi ntchito kompyuta amagwira munthawi yomweyo kumasulira zopempha ndi dolphin a kusewera ndi matope. Akatswiri kale ntchito njira zochepa orthodox kumuyandikira zolengedwa anzeru kwambiri, amene ubongo ndi thupi kukula chiŵerengero ndi wachiwiri kwa anthu.

Kodi wamasuka ndi kulankhula nyama kungakhale zodabwitsa chipangizo. Koma kuli konse chinenero? Kodi Chingolopiyo kulemba buku? Ndi mbandakucha makolasi zovuta ndi mtsutso aphungu?

Chimpanzi Nim Chimpsky akukwera ndi Professor Herbert Terrace mu zochitika ku
Chimpanzi Nim Chimpsky, anasankhidwa kukhala mutu wa chilankhulo kuyesera, akukwera ndi Prof Herbert Terrace a University Columbia mu zochitika ku Project Nim. Chithunzi: Susan Kuklin / AP

zoposa 50 zaka zapitazo, American zilankhulo Charles Hockett kuzindikiridwa zimene iye anatcha 13 "Kapangidwe" kulankhulana. chilankhulo Only anthu, iye anati, zili zonse 13, ndipo zina zimatha kwambiri wolemekezeka izo ku zinthu monga magule uchi njuchi ndi kuyitana Gibbon. Pano pali ena a iwo:

Interchangeability

aliyense wa mitundu zingabweretse iliyonse ya zizindikiro ntchito dongosolo. Izi si choncho ndi mitundu yonse ya kulankhulana: Hockett amagwiritsa ntchito chitsanzo cha kuvina mating wa stickleback ndi, chimene mosiyana ndi amuna ndi akazi - ndi "sangathe kuchita anthu yoyenera kwa wina".

mwankhanza

Kubverana zizindikiro ndi zinthu zimasonyeza kungakhale mwachisawawa. Ndikanati kuyambitsa chinenero, Ine akanatha kusankha kuti "blop" amatanthauza tebulo, koma mofanana, "Polb" akanadzachita. Tisiyanitse ndi mawu onomatopoeic monga "phokoso" kapena "ngozi", amene chionetsero zina zofanana phonetic ndi zinthu zomwe iwo kufotokoza. Izi amatchedwa iconicity. Maonekedwe a gule njuchi, amene amagwiritsidwa ntchito kulankhula kwa njuchi zina pamene timadzi tokoma angapezeke, wakhala kugwirizana ndi njira kumwedwa.

njuchi A amachita 'waggle kuvina', ndikukuuzani njuchi zina pamene timadzi tokoma angapezeke

Discreteness

Language lapangidwa ndi osiyana, mayunitsi kuuzindikira. Kuphatikizapo phokoso, lotchedwa phonemes, kuti kusiyanitsa mawu wina ndi mzake - monga "pini" ndi "bin". Pamene phoneme osiyana ntchito, kuloza ku tanthauzo lina kwa ena momveka bwino komanso mwamsanga. A winawake Gibbon, mbali inayi, imasintha kutanthauza "Ndine pano" kuti "Ine ndine mtima 'chabe ndi kupeza mokweza kapena zambiri limatsindika. Ichi ndi mosalekeza kusintha. Mofananamo, Njuchi zikhoza waggle pang'ono mwamsanga kusonyeza mtunda kwambiri.

kusamutsidwa

Language amatilola sakunena za zinthu zimene mtunda m'malere, kapena nthawi. Nyama amakonda kuchita ndi kulankhula za zinthu zoyenera pamaso pawo - ngati mongoose ngozi kuitana chikwiyire ndi mbalame yolusa. pang'onopang'ono, Komabe, umboni wosonyeza anapeza kuti nyama zambiri amatha sakunena za zinthu zimene palibe - ngati ndi Kanzi ndi bonobo, amene amatha kugwiritsa ntchito chipangizo kulankhulana kupempha zosakaniza wina wa mbale wake ndiwotani, omelette.

Kanzi, ndi bonobo pa Iowa Primate Learning opatulika, amagwiritsa ntchito chipangizo akutchedwa 'lexigram’ kulankhula ndi anthu

Duality

Language ali m'njira ziwiri: mmodzi amene ali ndi tanthauzo - mawu kapena zizindikiro kuti angathe kutanthauziridwa ndi okha - ndi wina umene ndi phindu koma amamvera malamulo. Mayunitsi monga phonemes padziko mlingo wachiwiri, koma akuwonjezeka pamodzi kuti mawu. Mundawu amalola ambiri yoletsedwa mayunitsi phindu (monga iwo 40 kapena zikumveka timatha kupanga ntchito makodi yathu ithe kulankhula) kwa pamodzi kubala mabiliyoni osiyana, kupereka chinenero kwakukulu kusinthasintha.

zokolola

Language angagwiritsidwe ntchito kunena zinthu buku kwathunthu. Zilibe kulimbana ndi zosayembekezereka, ndi mosavuta ankakonda kunena kuti pali giraffe ndi mawanga wobiriwira pabalaza. kuyitana kochuluka nyama ndi lokhazikika ndipo sangathe pamodzi kuti pofotokoza zinthu zatsopano.

Ngakhale nyama apamwamba angathe kuphatikiza adjectives ndi manauni pofotokoza zinthu zatsopano - ngakhale analogies (Alex wotchedwa zouma chimanga "thanthwe chimanga" chifukwa zinali zovuta) - Ndi zokolola kuti nyama kwenikweni amagwa. machitidwe awo kulankhulana alibe mbali makamaka a chinenero anthu, wotchedwa recursion. Ndi chuma cha njira tikulamulirani mawu amene amatanthauza chiwerengero cha ziganizo ife zingabweretse ndi theoretically wopandamalire. Mwachitsanzo, Ndinganene: "David sanasangalale ndi Michael". I akhoza kunena "Theresa ananena kuti David sanasangalale ndi Michael", "George sanakhulupirire kuti Theresa ananena kuti David sanasangalale ndi Michael" ndi zina zotero, kunthawi za nthawi. Monga momwe ife tikudziwira, anamgumiwa osati kumangopita kuti athe kupeza mitu yawo chonse kuti.

The kapangidwe kwambiri Mawuwo anali chinachake kuwululidwa mwa Noam Chomsky, ndi strident mulandu wa exceptionalism chinenero anthu. Koma ngakhale ife angakhale kuti anapeza dongosolo lililonse ofanana nyama, kuti si kutilekanitsa ndi zachilengedwe monga motsimikiza monga mungaganize.

Alex ndi "mayi", Irene Pepperberg, anafunsa, "Kodi tikuphunzira chiyani ngati ife tikupeza kuti khalidwe wapadera kapena amasonyeza kuti anthu?". Ndi ofunika kuganizira ichi, Popeza njira malembedwe wakhala ntchito mfundo yoti nzeru za anthu ndi zodabwitsa limodzi pa. Iye ananena kuti katundu zapadera kachitidwe kulankhulana amachitika chifukwa cha mavuto osiyanasiyana zachilengedwe ndi zamoyo zinachita. The quirks makamaka a malembedwe munthu akhoza kutuluka mu mitundu ina ngati zinthu zinali zolondola. Kumene, timawaona iwo wapadera chifukwa iwo athu. Koma kusanduka kamodzi, ndipo iwo akhoza kusintha kachiwiri - ndipo mulole, kwinakwake achikalekale, kale kunja uko, yodikira anapeza.

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