Upainiya ubongo kulambalala amalola Chip mu ubongo kutumiza chizindikiro kwa minofu dzanja ndi zala, kotheka kuti Yendetsani chala khadi ndi gitala Hero
Nkhaniyi lotchedwa “Brain analili kumathandiza ziwalo munthu ayambirenso tsankho ulamuliro wa dzanja lake” linalembedwa ndi Ian Chitsanzo Science mkonzi, pakuti theguardian.com Lachitatu 13 April 2016 17.00 UTC
A mwamuna 24 wazaka amene analumala ngozi zaka zisanu zapitazo anayambanso ulamuliro wa dzanja lake pogwiritsa ntchito analili kuti anatumiza chizindikiro kwa ubongo wake mwachindunji minofu kuti kusuntha dzanja lake ndi zala.
Kudziwika monga kulambalala ubongo, ndi analili amalola Ian Burkhart kuti Yendetsani chala ngongole, masewera kanema, gitala Hero, ndiponso kuchita zimene monga kunyamula botolo ndi kutsanulira nkhani, atagwira foni kuti khutu lake, ndi kuyambitsa chikho. Iye ndi munthu woyamba kupindula ndi luso.
Burkhart, ku Dublin, Ohio, anali pagombe holide kukondwerera kumapeto kwa chaka chake choyamba ku koleji pamene iye analumphira m'madzimo yoweyula kuti mwazisiya iye n'kufika kunatitimira pachimulu chamchenga chobisika. Iye anali 19, paokha kwambiri, ndipo sankadziona kuti ngozi angathe kumupha.
Mphamvu ya mmene Nditatsegula khosi Burkhart pa mlingo C5. Iye adakali kusuntha manja ake kumlingo, koma manja ake ndi miyendo zinali zopanda ntchito. Friends ananyamuka iye mmadzi ndi kumudzutsa chochenjeza. mwangozi, ndi pa-ntchito yozimitsa moto anali pa gombe, ndipo anaitana azachipatala.
Burkhart anali mankhwala pa choipa ndi gulu la madokotala Ohio State University. Kuyambira pachiyambi, iye anali chiyembekezo kuti patsogolo achipatala akanati akhale ndi moyo. He told the team he was interested in research and willing to take part in trials of new technologies.
The Ohio researchers got their hands on a neural bypass developed by a charity called Battelle and offered Burkhart the chance to have the implant fitted. “That was the million dollar question: do you want to have brain surgery or something that may not benefit you. There are a lot of risks,” said Burkhart. “It was certainly something I had to consider for quite some time. But after a meeting with all the team and everyone involved, I knew I was in good hands.”
He went ahead and surgeons duly fitted a tiny computer chip into the motor cortex of his brain. Pano, the chip picked up electrical signals from the part of the motor cortex that controls hand movements.
The fuzz of brain activity is fed into a computer and converted into electrical pulses that bypass the injured spinal cord and connect to a sleeve that Burkhart wears on his forearm. From there, 130 electrodes send the pulses through the skin to the muscles beneath, where they control wrist and even separate finger movements. The patterns of the signals are tuned to produce the movements Burkhart thinks about making.
It took time to learn how to use the device. pa 15 miyezi, Burkhart spent up to three sessions a week learning how to control his hand movements.
“Initially we’d do a short session and I’d feel mentally fatigued and exhausted, like I’d been in a six or seven hour exam. Pakuti 19 years of my life I took it for granted: I think and my fingers move. But with more and more practise it became much easier. It’s second nature.”
“The first time I moved my hand, I had that flicker of hope knowing that this is something that’s working, I will be able to use my hand again. Right now, it’s only in a clinical setting, but with enough people working on it, ndi chidwi chokwanira, zingakhale chinachake chimene ine ndingakhoze ntchito kunja kwa chipatala, kunyumba kwanga ndipo kunja kwathu, ndi kwenikweni kusintha khalidwe la moyo wanga,"Iye anati.
Burkhart anachita kayendedwe woyamba kugwiritsa ntchito maganizo yekha 2014, koma chifukwa anaphunzira zochita zovuta kwambiri ndi kuwongolera bwino pa dzanja lake ndi zala. Tsatanetsatane wa zotsatira atsopano ndi ofalitsidwa mu Nature.
"Inali nthawi yodabwitsa timu,"Anati Ali Rezai, ndi neurosurgeon pa Ohio boma Wexner Medical Center, kukumbukira Burkhart ndi manja yoyamba. Koma panthawi, ulamuliro wake analola kuti magulu zoyambirira zokha. "A masekondi angapo pambuyo modabwa ndi, tinati CHABWINO, tili ndi ntchito yambiri yoti pano. "The gulu kugwira ntchito tsa kuti kuyenda akhakula mu yeniyeni, zochita zothandiza.
Chad Button, amene anathandiza kulenga chipangizo, anati kafukufukuyu kanali koyamba munthu amene ali ndi ziwalo anali anayambanso kuyenda pogwiritsa ntchito zizindikiro wolembedwa mkati ubongo. "Timaganiza ichi ndi chifukwa zofunika pamene tikuyesetsa ndi kukonza njira ya odwala ena m'tsogolo, osati okhawo anavulala msana, komanso anthu amene akumana sitiroko, ndi kuvulala ubongo zingakhale ngakhale zoopsa,"Iye anati.
"Ife sankadziwa ngati zingatheke,"Button anawonjezera. "Sikuti ife kupeza chizindikiro anthu a mu ubongo ndi kumvetsa iwo kayendedwe munthu chala, but we were able to link those signals to Ian’s muscles and allow that kind of movement to be regained. This is important for daily activities, such as feeding, and having the patient be able to clothe themselves.”
The researchers are now looking at a host of improvements that should make the system more portable and possible to use outside the hospital. Brain signals picked up by the implant could potentially be sent wirelessly to the computer for processing, and onwards to the forearm sleeve to stimulate the muscles. Another improvement could see more electrodes added to the brain chip, so more subtle signals can be detected and passed on to the patient’s muscles.
“Ten years ago we couldn’t do this. Imagine what we can do in another 10,” said Rezai.
Nick Annetta, an electrical engineer on the team, said the team was working to make the system smaller and useful for a broader range of patients. “This could be applied to other motor impairments, not just spinal cord injuries,"Iye anati. “We think this is just the beginning.”
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