Kodi kuganizira zimene ine ndikuganiza? Kukwera kwa zochita

Are you thinking what I’m thinking? The rise of mind control

 

Zoyendetsedwa ndi Guardian.co.ukNkhaniyi lotchedwa “Kodi kuganizira zimene ine ndikuganiza? Kukwera kwa zochita” linalembedwa ndi Tom Ireland, pakuti The Observer Loweruka 22 August 2015 18.30 UTC

Ahundred maelekitirodi mwamtundu mwamphamvu changa ndinatemeka m'mutu ndi chisakanizo cha madzi a mchere ndi mwana shampu ndi ukuwukha zanga mmbuyo. The goings pa wanga pang'ono Mokwiya ubongo kuimilidwa ndi baffling zosiyanasiyana magirafu pa zenera pamaso panga. Pamene ine kutseka maso anga ndi kumasuka, ndi chosokonekera spikes ndi troughs kukhala zaukhondo pang'ono mafunde.

Ena, Asayansi kuno ku Newcastle University a Institute of Neuroscience anakwanitsa yaing'ono magetsi mafunde m'madera osiyanasiyana a m'mutu mwanga, pogwiritsa ntchito wotchedwa transcranial maginito kukondoweza (TMS). Ngati moto chiwiya ochepa millimeters kumanzere kwa ubongo wanga wa galimoto kotekisi, Ndikuona kanthu. Ndinapweteka "wokoma banga", Komabe, ndi mkono wanga chimachititsanso chokha.

Ndine pano chionetsero cha zida underpinning ambiri kuitana "zochita" zipangizo zamakono. Neuroscientists ndikukhulupirira posachedwapa kuti anthu kulamulira akupanga zikugonana ntchito mphamvu ya kulingalira yekha, kapena kutumiza maganizo kapena zolinga kwa munthu wa maganizo mwachindunji kudziko - yoopsa kwambiri kwa okonda a mwambo Wazopeka Zasayansi mafilimu monga Zitsulo zofufuzira zidazo, kumene anthu ukulamulidwa ndi anthu osankhika mphamvu ndi zochita ndi mphamvu telepathic.

Ena amaganiza kuti anthu tsiku lina kulumikiza miyoyo yawo ubongo pamodzi, kudzera pa intaneti, kupanga kwakukulu gulu wapamwamba-ubongo.

Apa mu Newcastle, akatswiriwo akukhulupirira amenewa makampani ntchito kubwezeretsa gulu kuti anthu amakhudzidwa ndi ziwalo kapena kulumala. Wina wooneka, maelekitirodi azindikire mkuntho wa magetsi ntchito kuchokera ubongo wanga pansi kwa mitsempha ya nkono wanga monga ine kusuntha zala. Ine ndikumva crackle wa munthu galimoto mayunitsi mu dzanja langa minofu kuwombera, nakweza mwa hissing okamba.

Gulu apa ntchito zizindikiro kuthandiza anthu kulamulira akupanga miyendo, kapena reroute mitsempha zikhumbo kubwerera mu thupi ndichilambalale kuonongeka misempha. Chotero zipangizo amadziwika monga ubongo kompyuta polumikizira, kapena BCIS, ndipo kutukuka kwambiri m'zaka khumi.

Padziko lonse lapansi, neuroscientists apita zina zowonjezereka, kutumiza mauthenga kuchokera ku ubongo wina analenga ubongo ndi ubongo mawonekedwe, kapena BBI. Ofufuza ngakhale munthu mmodzi kusuntha pamene munthu wina akufuna kuti, onse polumikiza awo ubongo.

Greg Gage timasonyeza latsopano 'munthu anthu' mawonekedwe.

"Mind ulamuliro" mwadzidzidzi osati ndithu, koma makamaka m'malo zosavuta. Inu mungagule "DIY munthu anthu mawonekedwe" Intaneti kwa zoposa £ 165, mbali ya polojekiti aiming kuti neuroscience kwambiri yopezeka kwa achinyamata. Limodzi kanema ndi neuroscientist Greg Gage, awiri pa siteji odzipereka olumikiza chipangizo - pang'ono angapo mawaya, ena ziphaliwali circuitry ndi yoika pamiyendo. Pamene nkhani lopiringizika awo mkono, wina analephera kuletsa awo mkono kupiringiza kwambiri.

"Pamene inu mudzataya ufulu wina moti nthumwi, iwo amachita amaona zosamveka,"Gage amanena kwa achinyamata odzipereka.

Pa akadaulo njira imeneyi, zinthu pang'ono weirder. Mu 2013 Akatswiri ku Harvard Medical School analengeza iwo anali anapanga chipangizo kuti analola munthu mmodzi kuti kusuntha ndi makoswe mchira kudzera ndinaganiza yekha. Chaka chomwecho, neuroscientists ku University of Washington anatumiza chizindikiro ubongo kudzera pa intaneti kwa munthu mmodzi atavala ndi electroencephalography (EEG) chomverera m'makutu wina ndi TMS chipangizo, chosonyeza akuyendetsa wolandira manja. Munthu, kuonera kompyuta masewera, ankaganiza ikuyenda dzanja lawo kuponyera pansi mdani chida. Maganizo ake zinasokhezera munthu wina chala anagunda choyambitsa pa nthawi yoyenera.

Kenako pali ziwalo wachinyamata amene anavula woyamba mpira chaka chatha FIFA World Cup kutsegula mwambo, Kuvala ndi exoskeleton amalamulidwa ndi malingaliro ake. Ndipo asayansi pa Starlab yanthambi ku Barcelona, amene amanena kuti anasonyeza "Sadziwa kufala kwa information" - kutumiza mawu "hola" kwa umodzi wina, popanda mwina munthu kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu.

Chotero zatsopano m'pomveka kupanga anthu ambiri sasangalala. Rumours kuti US nkhondo ndi ndalama kafukufuku limeneli zimangolimbikitsa nkhawa mantha kuthekera ntchito. Kodi anthu kusamukira kapena mchitidwe wawo, kapena awo chamkati maganizo yotengedwa mutu wawo?

The akupanga exoskeleton ntchito pa 2014 World Cup kutsegula mwambo.

Yankho, pakadali pano, pafupi panalibe. Ngakhale mwakuwoneka kwambiri Zimene zingakhale pang'ono underwhelming pamene ndinayang'ana pa mwatsatanetsatane. The Barcelona kafukufuku, mwachitsanzo, angaone ngati munthu ndinaganiza "hola" ndi wolandira ndiye anamva mawu liwu la mkati mwa mutu wawo. Mfundo ndi osiyana kwambiri: ndi "sender" atalembedwa mawu bayinare malamulo kuyerekezera kusuntha manja kapena mapazi - wina kayendedwe amatanthauza "0", zina amatanthauza "1". The "wolandila" atambira mitundu iwiri ya ubongo: mmodzi, chimene chinapangitsa kuti iwo ndazindikira kunachita kuwala, ankaimira 1s, Kugunda wina ndi zopanda phindu ankaimira 0s. Choncho, kwenikweni, munthu mmodzi kufotokozapo mawu ndi kuganiza zosamukira, ndi munthu mmodzi ali ndi mtundu wa futuristic Morse malamulo anaphulitsa mu mutu wawo. Kaso, koma nkomwe The masanjidwewo.

Bvuto, ubongo ndi ubongo luso anthu panopa m'mbadwo sanali olanda matekinoloje, monga slimy EEG chipangizo chimene chinsalu pa mutu wanga Newcastle. Kunja kwa chigaza, chotero zipangizo likhoza kuona Timatalala Tochepa ntchito mu kunja mbali ya ubongo, kapena lalikulu spikes ntchito kwambiri mu ubongo.

"Kuwerenga ubongo ntchito ndi EEG ngati kuyesera kutsatira mpira machesi pamene anaima panja pa bwalo,"Anati Dr Andrew Jackson, mkulu kafukufuku anzake ku Newcastle anayambitsa. "N'coonekelatu pamene munthu yagoletsa cholinga. Koma ndimo iwo. "

Ntchito kugwirizana ndi kayendedwe ndi imodzi mwa zovuta mitundu ya ubongo ntchito kuti azindikire ndi kuberekana. Wogonjetsa maganizo, omwe amakhudza kwambiri zapadera, maloboti ntchito, china chake chosiyana kwambiri.

Kutumiza zomverera mu wolandila ubongo ngakhale zochepa yeniyeni. Transcranial maginito kukondoweza, chiwiya ntchito kupangira mkono wanga twitch, zingachititse magetsi mafunde aakulu kwambiri yeniyeni mbali ya ubongo, activating manyuroni mwa anthu m'madera. Koma kachiwiri, kulenga zovuta zomverera monga mawu ndi maganizo ndi akutali pano kuchuluka mwa zipangizozi.

Jackson anati: "Pa lonse njira [chifukwa chotumiza zizindikiro] sichidziwika yeniyeni kuposa njira tili kujambula - n'zovuta kulamulira kumene kolimbikitsa. Ndipo ife siungathe kumudziwa kwambiri za chilankhulo cha ubongo - sitikudziwa zimene kutengeka adzakhala analengedwa ndi zosangalatsa zosiyana mu dera. "

Giulio Ruffini, amene anathandiza kuyambitsa "hola" kafukufuku, anati kufala kwa kwenikweni maganizo kapena mauthenga, osati zinayendera 0s ndi 1s, mwina yekha mwina ndi olanda luso - ndi implantation ya zipangizo mwachindunji ku ubongo.

"Ndi kwambiri chidwi cholinga - ubongo amaona chinachake ndipo chidwi kuti yeniyeni zinachitikira munthu wina. Zakhala chitsanzo ndi olanda sayansi ya nyama, ndipo ine ndikukhulupirira izo zidzachitidwa anthu posachedwapa kwambiri. "

Chotero amadzala muli mazana miniti singano ngati maelekitirodi, anaikidwa malo enieni mu ubongo kuwayang'anira kapena chidwi munthu manyuroni. Akatswiri chaka chino adalumikiza nkhani ya ubongo wa zitatu anyani ntchito olanda zipangizo zamakono, ndipo anapeza kuti nyama mwamsanga anaphunzira synchronize ubongo ntchito kuti ndikagwire nawo ntchito. Mofananamo kafukufuku, zinayi makoswe chokhudzana ndi kwapakati pa-yokhudza kotekisi zipangizozi zinali wokhoza kuchita ntchito pa mlingo wokwererapo kuposa limodzi nyama.

Ruffini ndi okondwa pazimene amadzala akhoza kukwaniritsa anthu. "Ndi kwamphamvu kwambiri. Kale mukhoza kugwirizana anthu ndi mawonekedwe amene akulamulira ngati makina amene mungagwiritse ntchito kukatenga zinthu. Ngati ife kukhazikitsa mgwirizano ubongo amene ali ndi mphamvu zokwanira, akanakhoza anthu makamaka kumuona ngati mmodzi ndi munthu yemweyo? Kodi ife ngakhale kulankhulana ndi mitundu?"

Miguel Nicolelis, mpainiya m'munda, limanena kuti ngati olanda luso anali anaona ngozi ethically chovomerezeka, "Akuchita chinachake monga wolamulira galimoto ndi maganizo anu adzakhala mwachilungamo zazing'ono". M'buku lake Beyond Malire, Nicolelis envisages m'tsogolo pamene anthu "kukopera lakwawo kukumbukira banki" kapena "kuona zomverera za wokhudza padziko linalo popanda kusiya chipinda chanu chochezera". Pa foni, Komabe, ali pragmatic. "Zapamwamba kuti ubongo ntchito palibe kuti opatsirana. Ngati sitingasinthe anachepetsedwa kukhala njira, sitingasinthe pogonana. "

Monga Nicolelis, ambiri akugwira ntchito m'munda umenewu ngati kuchereza onse hypothetical mwayi, ngakhale njira kulephera ndi zovuta za ubongo. Tellingly, pamene UK a sayansi makhalidwe komiti ndinayang'ana mu m'kathumba "neurotechnologies", monga BCIs ndi BBIs, iwo anaganiza kulakwika pakati pa Mungachite zimenezi ndi zimene n'zotheka chinali chachikulu kwambiri kuti palibe aliyense mawongoleredwe kanthu chifukwa tsopano.

Amalonda ankafuna kulenga kuwerenga malingaliro EEG zapamwamba kuti kwakukulukulu anali nthano, ndipo pamene ine yesani £ 165 DIY munthu anthu mawonekedwe ku mavidiyo, Ndimawerenga mungondipatsa anzanga magetsi shocks. Izo zonse zingowonjezekera yosokoneza pophatikiza moona wanzeru sayansi ndiponso zongoganizira kukomeza.

"Ndi zina zatsopano Ine ndawonapo ine sindiri otsimikiza zimene ankatanthauza, ena kuposa kukhala munthu woyamba kuchita izo,"Anavomereza Jackson.

Komabe, olanda zamakono zili akhoza kubwera ku chipatala pafupi nanu, ndi zina zotero. "Olanda sayansi ya kwenikweni yabwino kwa wodwala amene akusowa mwendo kapena ziwalo,"Anati Jackson. "Iwo ena safuna kuvala chinachake pa mitu yawo, mwina mukufuna chinachake mpaka kalekale ndipo inalowa mu thupi lawo. "Pamene ine kuchotsa dzinja wamng'ono anafuna-pambuyo headwear anga osauka mutu, Ndikuona mfundo yake. Nkhani tsopano ali kulenga otetezeka amadzala zimene bwinobwino pansi pa khungu kwa zaka zambiri.

Ena, kuphatikizapo Ruffini, kukhala otsimikiza kuti anthu athe umakhalapo ubongo kwambiri momveka, mwina wirelessly, mwa izi m'ma.

"Anthu ayenera kulankhulana. Ife nthawizonse ndayesera kuti adziwane ndi bandiwifi chimene ife tikhoza kuchita izo - ndi chinenero kapena kalata, telefoni kapena intaneti. Zingatenge 50 kapena 100 zaka tisanakumane kulankhulana maganizo, koma ine ndikuganiza kuti mosalephera. "

Non-olanda ubongo ndi ubongo polumikizira

■ Ntchito mu ubongo itapezeka ndi chipangizo unachitikira pa ndinatemeka m'mutu, monga electroencephalography (EEG). Uyu kumasonyeza dongosolo la neural ntchito, makamaka m'madera a kunja ubongo.

■ The deta ndi nakweza, kukonzedwa, ndi kusanthula ndi kompyuta, ndipo anayamba mbendera amene angagwirenso kudziko ubongo.

■ Transcranial maginito kukondoweza (TMS) amagwiritsa ntchito maginito yokopera magetsi ku mbali ya ubongo, kolimbikitsa minyewa imeneyi "moto". The zomverera kuti akhoza analenga potumiza zikhumbo mu ubongo motere ali ochepa kwambiri, mwachitsanzo minofu kayendedwe kapena kuzindikira kunachita kuwala.

Olanda ubongo ndi ubongo polumikizira

■ A wapadera Chip munali ting'onoting'ono, singano ngati maelekitirodi ndi kuboolaboola ubongo ndipo anakakonza kwa chigaza. Maelekitirodi akhoza adzaikidwe ndi zokwanira bwino kuyeza ntchito ya munthu manyuroni.

■ Ntchito itapezeka, kukonzedwa ndi kusanthula ndi kompyuta.

■ maelekitirodi akhoza adzaikidwe kuti tizichita yeniyeni mbali ya ubongo. Ngakhale kwambiri kuposa TMS, kolimbikitsa zovuta mavuto ngati maganizo kapena ankalamulira magulu akadali asanakhale kotheka.

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