Australian vitenskap byrå CSIRO sier arbeidsplasser vil bli stadig digitalt fokusert og automatisert. Hvem ønsker å være en "online anstand '?
Denne artikkel med tittelen “Er dette fremtidens arbeid? Forskere spår hvilke jobber fortsatt vil være åpen for mennesker i 2035” ble skrevet av Paul Karp, for theguardian.com på fredag 26 februar 2016 05.41 UTC
Arbeidere på jakt etter jobb i 2035 kan vurdere omskolering som fjernstyrte kjøretøy operatører eller online anstand.
De er to av jobbene i fremtiden foreslått i en rapport fra CSIRO som diagrammer 20-års trender i økende grad digitalt fokusert og automatiserte australske arbeidsplasser.
Arbeidsforholdet minister, Michaelia Cash, utgitt rapporten på fredag på Australian Computer Society konferanse.
Cash ifølge rapporten viste "noen jobber vil uunngåelig bli automatisert i løpet av de kommende årene, men teknologisk endring vil forbedre andre, og også skape nye arbeidsplasser og muligheter".
"Fremtiden vil ikke være om folk konkurrerer med maskiner, det vil være om folk bruker maskiner og gjøre arbeid som er mer interessant og givende,"Sa hun.
Rapporten identifiserer seks mega-trender i arbeidslivet, den viktigste av dem er en "eksplosjon i enhet-tilkobling, datamengder og databehandling hastighet, kombinert med raske fremskritt innen automatiserte systemer og kunstig intelligens gjør at robot enheter kan utføre mange oppgaver raskere, sikkert og effektivt enn mennesker ".
Økt automatisering vil øke kompleksiteten av arbeideroppgaver. “Many low-skilled jobs are being offshored or automated. The consequence is the likelihood of a raised skills and education bar for entry into many professions and occupations,” the report said.
The report found science, teknologi, engineering and mathematics (Stem) knowledge is used in 75% of the fastest-growing occupations and lamented that “Australian youth demonstrate falling interest and performance in Stem”.
Another trend is an anticipated rise in self-employment and freelancing caused by peer-to-peer platforms Upwork, Kaggle, Innoventive and Freelancer.com, which the report claims “provide value through convenience, low barriers to entry and increased speed enabling people to transform their free time into paid work”.
The report said while freelancing “has not yet taken hold in Australia, it is a large (og økende) employment model in other countries”, such as in America where one in three workers is an independent contractor.
If the ideal job does not exist, the worker may need create it, the report suggested. “Entrepreneurial skills are likely to be increasingly important for small business founders and employees within large organisations,” it said.
The report predicted service industries, particularly education and healthcare, would continue to drive job creation, meaning “social interaction skills and emotional intelligence will become increasingly important”.
The report said Australia’s workforce will be diverse, with one in five Australians over the age of 65 i 2035, high female participation and a large proportion of migrants being of working age.
The report said the employment trends will result in new job types, and speculated these might include “bigger big data analysts”, complex decision support analysts, remote-controlled vehicle operators, customer experience experts, personal preventative health helpers and online chaperones.
“The rise of un-crewed vehicles is giving rise to a new workforce of pilots, drivers and ship captains who do their jobs not from the sky, sea or mine site, but from an office in a remote location,” the report said.
In a speech to a workforce productivity conference on 8 Desember, Australian Council of Trade Unions secretary Dave Oliver warned “extreme changes presented by current technological advances are resulting in a deeper, wider and more permanent hollowing out of the jobs market”.
Han sa a recent CEDA report viste 5 million jobs (40% of the Australian workforce) face a high probability of being replaced by computers over the next 10 til 15 år.
“Despite the great many benefits of new technologies, we desperately want to avoid the slide to a labour market platform that forces workers to bid against each other for parcels of work in some kind of brutal, reverse eBay-style auction,” Oliver said.
“The challenge for all of us – unions, employers, regulators and governments – is to harness the technological opportunities and make them work for, rather than against, worker’s best interests,"Sa han.
Cash said “more than ever, education and training are important for succeeding in the labour market. Av 2019, the number of jobs available for highly-skilled labour is projected to be more than double the number available in 1991.
“How Australia’s workforce fares in the long term will depend on our ability to help workers make transitions to new and better jobs. Our biggest challenge will be to ensure no one is left behind,"Sa hun.
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