Cas tib neeg yuav tsum yeej xwb Mars thiab tshaj

How humans will conquer Mars and beyond

 

Powered by Guardian.co.ukNo tsab xov xwm hu “Cas tib neeg yuav tsum yeej xwb Mars thiab tshaj” yog sau los ntawm Kevin foom, rau lub Observer rau hnub xya hlis ntuj nqeg 13th 2015 08.30 UTC

Xyoo no lub Noob nom noob tswv lub txhab Christmas Lectures saib cov kev sib tw ntawm tib neeg qhov chaw davhlau thiab dab tsi uas yuav siv rau hurl tus neeg rau hauv cov frontier rau voyages ntawm kev tshawb kawm kawg.

Raws li tus kws kho mob kuv siv ntau tshaj ib xyoo caum vias travelling tus UK thiab Nasa tus Johnson chaw Center nyob rau hauv Houston, zoo li ib tug neeg soj ntsuam mus xyuas ntawm tej yaam num, xws li kawm rau los ntawm lub chaw nyob rau ageing physiology mus nqus khoom cua tshuab. Tib lub sij hawm kuv twb sau kuv tshaj kev kawm nyob rau hauv anaesthesia thiab intensive tu. Yog khib rau cov ob lub neej splice ua ke. Ua hauj lwm rau hauv ib chav tsev intensive zov thaum hmo ntuj, nqe lus hais txog rau lub tshav dav hlau kawg ntawm cov ua haujlwm, thawb ib co pw tsaug zog hauv lub dav hlau, thiab mus txog rau hnub tom ntej ces ntawv nyob rau hauv ib chav sib tham hauv Houston, qhov uas cov neeg tau zaum ncig tham txog kev xa neeg ruaj ntseg zoo mus Mars.

Tab sis, qhov tshaj plaws uas txuas ob tug sib tw rau lub neej thaum lub extremes. Nyob rau hauv lub tsev kho mob kuv twb ntsia tus extremes lub neej thaum sib tw los ntawm tus kab mob thiab raug mob. Nyob Nasa kuv tau saib cov kev hem thawj rau pej xeem physiology posed ntawm tus extremes hauv lub ntiaj teb thiab ntug.

Thaum peb tham txog huab npuas uas peb yuav tau txais ib lub tswv yim ntxhib ntawm lawv cov austerity uas judging ntev npaum li cas lawv yuav txhawb tau tib neeg lub neej kev tiv thaiv zoo thiab unsupported. Thaum uas ntsuas los tau tsuav yog cov ntaub heev: physiology uniquely hostile rau tib neeg, nws muaj tsis muaj them nyiaj yug rau tib neeg lub neej tshua. Cov kev tiv thaiv zoo chaw traveller yuav muaj sia nyob hauv qhov chaw rau vib nas this ob peb pawg.

Koj yuav xav txog tej yam uas yuav muaj txaus rau ib tus kws kho mob ua – uas thaum nws los txog rau kev tshawb kawm tib neeg qhov chaw, cov neeg uas nkag siab thiab yuav muab cov neeg physiology yuav nyob rau lub forefront ntawm qhov nuav. Tab sis tus kws kho mob ua si ib pluag thib ob fiddle los yog dab tsi overwhelmingly ib nyuas engineering – thiab muaj qee yam uas.

Chaw davhlau yog nyob rau hauv lub cev tso lus disarmingly. Tej yam yooj yim li tiag ntawd Newton muaj nyav to taub puab uas ze li ntawm underpin 400 xyoo dhau los. Tawm hauv lub ntiaj teb thiab ntaus ib orbit ncig, ua ntej koj yuav muab ib yam twj paj nruas thoob lub ntiaj teb nyuaj ua luaj tias cov trajectory extends dhau lub ntiaj teb horizons – nyuaj ua luaj tias nws yuav ua rau lub caij nplooj zeeg tas li tib tias nws yeej tsis rov pom av.

Thiaj li mus muab ib yam twj paj nruas rau hauv orbit lub ntiaj teb nyob ib ncig ntawm koj yuav tsum muab kom tau nrog ib tug nqi zog enormous. Nyob rau sab lus ceev qhov koj mus qhov wider lub voos kheej-kheej ntawm tus orbit cuag koj; tau ib lub tsheb mus cuag ib tug dav txaus nws yuav mus tsis tau lub ntiaj teb thiab lub sab sauv khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg tshaj ntawm cov cua orbit, yuav muab koj rau lub altitude tib yam li tus Thoob ntiaj teb chaw chaw nres tsheb ib co 250 mais saum toj no peb, koj yuav tau taug kev nyob ntawm 17,500mph.

Uas yuav tsum tau lub tsheb propelled yog xyaw roj tso tsheb hlau luam uas muaj peev xwm heev ntawm ib tug me ntsoog. Cov lus no, ntawm lub qhov chaw ntawm lub ntiaj teb rau hauv lub ntiaj teb uas tsis muaj orbit-aboard Soyuz spacecraft – yuav siv sij hawm me ntsis li yim feeb. Thiab li qhov uas lub nyuas hauv Nasa, thiab cov koom haum chaw thoob ntiaj teb, nrees li tus rooted hauv uas zov yam xws li tshuab ntau dua li cov tib neeg ib yog vim rau qhov nyuag tab sis tsausmuag sij hawm tsis tshuav dabtsi uas yuav luag tshuaj thaajmaum muab thiab yuav muab ib in the way of kev tiv thaiv ntawm yog. Lub community launch, yog tej hauj lwm yam xws li tshuab thiab txhua leej txhua tus nyob, los nws tsis thiab sawv daws perishes.

Lub preservation ntawm tib neeg lub neej thoob plaws hauv lub community launch nyob tsis tau li cov kev cai kho mob tab sis nyob rau concentric cov khaubncaws sab nraud povtseg co kev pab tiv thaiv uas engineers tsim thiab puab hab swaddle cov astronaut crews hauv.

Lub foob pob ua ntxaij xyaw yuav tsum hluav taws txig, delivering cia li rau txoj kev thrust rau lub sij hawm zoo xwb, qhia precisely txoj. Zoo kawg li hlab ntawd propulsion mustn't tau co lub tsheb, cov tshuab los yog nws lub cev tsis kho cargo ntawm coob xam nrog thiaj. Nws yog cov hauj lwm ntawm yam xws li tshuab nrog kom paub tseeb tias cov launcher thiab lub tsheb yog tsim los ua in the face of uas tseem tabtom txov lawv.

Thiab perched atop ntawd ntauwd hauv roj a thiab cov pa yog ib me quav tshuaj ntsiav, nrog rau qhov ntim ntawm ib handful ntawm xov tooj thawv, thiab ib ob peb tonnes thiab coob uas xam nrog peb crammed hauv co. Tshuaj ntsiav ntawd yog ib tug me quav npuas yug lub neej, pinched tawm ntawm lub ntiaj teb thiab tswj tseg artificially. Sab hauv, tseem ntau dua cov cav tov muab ib breathable cua uas txaus siab thiab warmth tuav lub neej nyob hauv lub kawm ntawm qhov chaw. Yog koj tsis tuag lub community launch, koj cov teeb meem no yeej yog pib xwb.

chris hadfield rau ntawm tej yam mob uas nyob rau
Qib High School lus: Chris Hadfield noj nyob rau hauv lub ntiajteb txawj nqus xoom aboard International chaw nres tsheb yam lig. Yees duab: Nasa

Thoob ntiaj teb chaw chaw nres tsheb

Zoo li yog thaum xav txog International chaw nres tsheb yam lig yog ib hi‑tech Loj hlob lub tsev, floating High School qaum ntuj. Nyob rau hauv ib co tsis totaub tias yeej muaj tseeb: nyob zoo cov hnyav los muaj zoo txuj. Yog muaj ob peb comforts zeej thiab precious kheej me ntsis. Nws yog ib tug nyob uake bristling nrog rau tej zaum txog teeb meem kev loj loj. Tab sis cov remarkably uas yog lom zem ntau pov tseg thiab ua 15 xyoo kev zov me nyuam muaj muaj tsis muaj evictions.

Tab sis, yog yam mob uas NYOB rau ntau ntau tshaj li ib qho kev pab thaiv. Thaum crews mus nyob muaj lawv noj tuaj nyob hauv lub tshuab uas raws li qhov uas lawv lub neej yog nyob ntawm seb txhua ob hnub. Lawv electrolyse dej los ua pa, cov kev sieves molecular mus txhuam khib gases tawm ntawm huab cua uas lawv ua pa, cav cua sov tshuab los txog hnub ci arrays uas tau tso tawm ntawm cov hwjchim 80kW. Ntawd hnub ci zog kuj drives plaub loj loj gyroscopes, uas khov kho thiab ho qhov chaw nres tsheb, tiv thaiv kom txhob tumbling hmloog.

International chaw nres tsheb yam lig yog yees far from: nws hums thiab whines perpetually; kiv cua yog khiav txhua lub sijhawm. Lub ntiajteb txawj nqus tsis tau cov pa kub tsis sawv los ua cua txias tsis tog. Muaj, raws li qhov tsim nyog tau ib, tsis muaj convection thiab tsis tau tias koj yuav tsis tau cua txav los yog muab. Uas nyeg ua rau cov teeb meem, tawm hauv astronauts nws taub rau tej qhov chaw tsis ventilated, uas thaum carbon dioxide yuav txoos ua ke. Li no tus tsis tu ncua nruag txog motors churning tej huab cua. Cov draughts rau ntawm tej yam mob uas nyob rau, zoo li yuav luag txhua tsav txhua yam uas lub crews vam raws li qhov kev noj qab nyob zoo nyob, yog dag. Tag nrho zog los tswj ntawd npuas lub neej xwb no txhawb rau tus outpost no xwb 250 mais saum peb hau. Tus dabtsi mus pab cov legion thiab peb tsis tau txawm pib tham txog lub ntiaj teb uas tsis muaj orbit ces tsis tau.

Rov qab mus rau lub hli

Yog ua hauj lwm tsis tiav rau lub hli. Nws yog ze li ntawm ib nrab xyoo vim tus Apollo programme landed teb txiv neej hauv nws qhov chaw. Thiab thaum nws nruab nrab yog ib cov khoom muaj nqis trove ntawm kev foundations, tsis muaj leej twg tau rov qab pib. Yog muaj lub ntuj lub teb orbit 250 mais tam sim ntawd thiab yuav tsum mus txog hauv feeb. Lub hli yog hais txog 250,000 mais deb, yuav siv sij hawm hnub mus rau thiab, ntxiv nrog rau qhov kev rho tawm thiab tus complexity ntawm lub foob pob ua ntxaij science yuav tsum tso, nplooj crews tsis tshua muaj neeg lam tau lam ua kom tawg. Nyob rau lub ntiaj teb peb nyob nraum tiv thaiv txhua yam los ntawm tej hom tawg pam tuab cov cua saum toj no, absorbs gamma rays uas, duab thiab ultraviolet tawg uas yuav tsis muaj teeb meem. Tiam sis yog lwm txheej kev tiv thaiv uas tseem yuav peb zoo: Ntiaj teb magnetic teb.

Cov ntxaij lim dej magnetosphere tias muaj teeb meem tshwj xeeb yog hom tawg, uas tawm nyob rau hauv daim ntawv ntawm charged, hais High-Energy-atomic nuclei spat ua ib lub by-product txog thermonuclear haum rau cov hnub qub nrog rau peb tus kheej. Teeb meem tshwj xeeb yog hom tawg puas thiab, Thaum solar flares, yuav ua rau kom ua siv ntau ntau leej uas ua lub sij hawm. Presently peb muaj tsawg tus in the way of tiv thaiv tau kom txhob tawg uas muaj cov phem solar flares.

Mars thiab beyond

Xyoo tsis ntev los no hauv lub tswv yim uas muab cov neeg crews saum nplaim tej yam uas tsis yog lub hli los yog Mars pom muaj nws txoj kev mus rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv uas zoo ntawm lub koom haum chaw thoob ntiaj teb. No lub hom phiaj yog tsawg science ntawv tseeb tshaj li qhov koj xav. Rau lwm qhov chaw Agenecy tus Rosetta lub hom phiaj, uas li spectacularly landed lub Philae lander nyob rau ntawm tus comet tsaib no, tsom peb tias peb yuav nrhiav thiab txais ib me quav phiaj hurtling mus txog qhov chaw 175,000 billions mais deb. Qhov no tau muab cov koom haum qoob loo tias lawv lub tswv yim uas yuav tsaws ib tus tibneeg rau ib tus asteroid yuav realisable.

Tiamsis tamsim no nws yog ib qho Mars uas yog lus dag rau ntawm ntug tseem, thiab surviving ntawd cov lus pib muaj kev sib tw ua rau lub txawv teev. Nrog Mars, qhov teeb meem yog nyob deb li cas thiab lub sij hawm. Mus rau lub ntiaj chaw liab koj yuav tsum traverse 175,000 lab interplanetary mais; ntau tshaj 1,000 times zuag Apollo crews travelled rau lub hli. Nrog technology uas twb muaj lawm nws yuav siv sij hawm rau thiab cuaj hlis mus tsoo hauv av Mars thiab zoo li qub dua rau ntawm ceg tuaj.

Yog ho tsis muaj gravitational load rau koj lub cev ntau. Weightlessness yuav zoo li kev lom zem, tab sis nyiam txhua tsav txhua yam, thiab ntau ntau uas nws yuav ua tau tus phem tshaj plaws. Thaum physiologists xub xam tias yog li cas cov nyhuv rau ntawm tej qhov chaw muaj nyob rau hauv tib neeg lub cev, ua ntej muaj leejtwg muaj txawm tau rau hauv qhov chaw, lawv kom haum predicted tias tej nqaij thiab pob txha yuav nkim. Cov tshuab cov sculpted los ntawm kev nqus thiab raws li tus neeg twg uas tau puas yog li ntau raws li ntsia ib gym paub, Yog hais tias koj tsis siv nws plam koj. Vim li no, aboard International chaw nres tsheb yam lig crews yuav tsum subject lawv tus kheej mus rau lub sij hawm programme ib ce resistive sim thiab tiv thaiv tau ib txhia ntawm tus pob txhaj thiab cov nqaij tsis.

nplaim mars
Yog muaj txoj sia nyob Mars? Tsaus nti streaks rau ntawm qhov chaw lub ntiaj chaw uas kom qhia tau tias muaj cov EAB ntws zoo dej. Yees duab: Nasa/Reuters

Weightlessness wreaks fav uas lwm lub nruab nrog. Nws upsets tsis totaub koj tshuav nyiaj li cas thiab nqi ordination, ua tsis taus rau tus neeg mus taug qab txhua lub hom phaj, peb illusions cov lus tsa suab thiab, rau thawj ob peb hnub hauv davhlau, feem ntau ua rau mob siab zoo nkauj. Pom lub xeev siab, tag nrho cov teeb meem yuav loj dua koj nyob lawm cov weightless.

Nyuam qhuav ntau, teeb meem tshiab – thiab ruaj khov uas ntau worrying – muaj cropped. Rau cov uas tseem tsis tau meej nkaus lub siab nyob hauv ib co txiv astronauts plaw pom sawv as a consequence of chaw davhlau, thiab qhov no tau txuas rau alterations nyob rau hauv lawv tej kom kuv pom tias tej zaum kuj mob siab rau peb xyoos tom qab uas lawv xa mus rau lub ntiaj teb. No phenomenon lawm xwb twb pom tom ntev ntev missions, highlights cov lus uas: siv sij hawm ntau nyob rau hauv qhov chaw tsis zoo rau koj.

Tab sis lub sij hawm tseem tsim teeb meem rau lub neej yug lub. Yog hais tias koj xav txog tej yam zog, dej, cov pa thiab cov hwj huam tib neeg yuav haus cov dej nyob hauv ib lub hom phiaj uas teev los kav mus txog 3 xyoos (Yog hais tias koj yog tus nyob deg), uas demands heev ib larder loj tsawv. Tam sim no hlav uas los ntawm ib tug neeg coob ntawm plaub los rau thiab nws zoo li koj xav tau ib qho impossibly loj loj spacecraft rau koj noj thiab ywg nyias xwb.

Thiab qhov uas ua rau tsis yog tias koj tsis tau zom ua dua tshiab thiab rov rau qab siv lub yog tias koj yuav. Twb aboard qhov chaw nres tsheb yam lig astronauts zom ua dua tshiab feem ntau lawv khib dej, xws li cov zis. Lawv txhuam carbon dioxide tawm hauv cov pa exhaled thiab rebreathe cov pa mus ntxiv. Tej zaum koj yuav tau mus ntxiv tseem, yog cog qoob loo hydroponically, ua tau ib qhov zaub thiab ib mechanism tshem cov pa roj carbon dioxide thiab renewing cov pa mov. Yog tias koj xaiv cov nroj tsuag txoj koj txawm yuav rho cov nitrogen rau tib neeg khib. Uas tau kawg yog ib txoj kev uas hais uas tej zaum koj yuav siv koj tus kheej poo fertilise koj cov qoob loo uas txhawb lub neej.

Lub kaw lus sophisticated li thaum uas yog ib yam nyuaj heev los dhos, tswj thiab tuav, thiab tej zaum yuav ib pliag ua ntej peb pom greenhouses ya mus txog qhov chaw tob. Rau kev them nyiaj yug lub neej tam sim no engineers yuav funding lawv tus kheej nrog nrhiav txoj kev los zom ua dua tshiab ntxiv thiab ntau dua ntawm qhov chaw muab kev pab lawv ua tau, thiab li ua kom payload crews los txhawm rau tej ntawd kom nws ciaj sia muaj zog.

There is a simple lesson from all of this: qhov chaw yuav yog ib qho nyuaj. All frontier endeavours are. But there is plenty to celebrate here. Since the start of the 21st century there has been a permanent human presence in space. What started as a surrogate battlefield for nuclear war has become a multinational programme of science, exploration and collaboration. This is not the place to get into a discussion of why we should explore space at all. There are many benefits that derive from human space exploration but one is more important than all the rest. Human space exploration inspires children to study and pursue careers in science, technology and engineering. It does so by showing them that within the limits of human imagination anything might be possible. Kuv paub qhov no vim nws inspired kuv thiab thoob plaws hauv daim tseem kuv lub neej muaj tseem tuav kuv fascination.

Nws yog ib qho enormous honour muab lub lub txhab kev muaj koob muaj npe Christmas Lectures. Thiab muaj, hais mus lub tsev yog hais tias qhov chaw yog ib qho nyuaj. Tab sis qhov tiag zaj lus qhia rau cov neeg tuaj saib xyoo yog hais tias qhov no lawm kuv taug txuj kev nyuaj thiab nws yuav ua tau koj li thiab.

Ciaj sia nyob rau hauv qhov chaw yuav ua li cas yuav tsum muaj nyob rau ntawm BBC4 nyob rau hauv peb qhov chaw nyob 28, 29 thiab 30 Hlis ntuj nqeg ntawm 8 pm. Xav paub ntxiv txog qhov Noob nom noob tswv chaw hauj lwm tus lub website thiab koom cov kev sib tham ntawm Twitter thiab Instagram ua li @ri_science los yog searching rau #xmaslectures

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