Txhua yam koj yuav tsum paub txog Gravitational tsis

Everything You Need to Know about Gravitational Waves

Amid rumours tias ib tug neeg observatory yuav ncha moo rau hnub plaub tias lawv tau kuaj tau qhov tseeb ntawm gravitational tsis, ntawm no yog cov lus tseem ceeb


Powered by Guardian.co.ukNo tsab xov xwm hu “Saib no spacetime: gravitational yoj foundations tau leej twg” yog sau ntawv los Ian qauv Science editor, rau ntawm tus neeg saib xyuas ntawm Tuesday 9th lub ob hlis ntuj 2016 15.59 UTC

Ib xyoo lawm ntev nrhiav gravitational tsis xav pom los xaus rau triumph lim tiam no thaum zaum txis lawv muaj sab ripples nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawm spacetime, tejzaum nws tsim los ntawm qhov kev sib tsoo uas ob tug loj heev dub qhov travelling nyob ze cov kev ceev ntawm lub teeb.

Ua ntej tshaj predicted ntawm Einstein, thiab generated los ntawm cataclysmic cov txheej xwm nyob hauv lub cosmos, gravitational tsis ncav thiab nyem qhov chaw thiab txhua yam li nws raws li lawv pua hla tus ntug. Lawv foundations, Yog hais tias paub tseeb hais tias, yog cov yuav tau txais tus nqi zog Nobel.

Zaum muaj hunted tus tsis pom xyoo lawm, tab sis, txog tam sim no, cov me nyuam no muaj tau ntxhov siab Pib ntsais koj teeb tsis muaj tseeb thiab hauv yus cov nqaij uas tsis rhiab txaus los xyuas txog cov tsis yog lub sij hawm uas tuaj txog lub ntiaj teb.

Uas yuav tsum hloov rau hnub plaub, Thaum physicists hauv Teb Chaws Asmeskas qhia cov ntaub ntawv tseeb kev xyaum ua tej yam hu ua LIGO, los lub siab heev Laser Interferometer Gravitational-yoj Observatory. Pab neeg no muaj detectors hauv Washington thiab Louisiana uas tau hnov lem gravitational tsis ntawm qhov hloov minuscule rau lawv ua ob raj hlau 4km-ntev ntev.

Thaum sib tham nrog ib tug xovxwm hauv Washington, Zaum LIGO yuav ntseg los qhia ib clear, unambiguous gravitational yoj teeb liab. Nws kuj yuav muaj tau los ntawm ob so los siav dub qhov, ib tug 29 lub sij hawm soj dua lub hnub, tug 36 lub sij hawm ntau loj heev, spiralling sib ib ncig thiab thaum kawg crashing ua ke tsim qhov dub tshiab 62 lub sij hawm cov pawg ntawm lub hnub. Rau tag nrho nws cov heft, tus tshiab cev tej zaum yuav tsis tau tshaj 200 mais dav.

Cov pawg uas ploj lawm – sib npaug rau suns peb cov, los yog rau trillion trillion kilotonnes – tau txia mus ua zog thiab txiav txim ua rau tsis LIGO ntseeg tau tias muaj kuaj tau gravitational.

"Neeg mas pog hugely. Tus rumour yog tias nws yog lub teeb liab loj whopping, hauv, Nws yog unambiguous, yog zoo heev,"hais Pedro Ferreira, xibfwb kev astrophysics nyob Oxford University, thiab tus sau zajlus lub 2014 phau ntawv, Qhov kev tshawb xav zoo meej: xyoo geniuses thiab tsov rog dua general relativity.

Thaum twg Einstein luam nws kev tshawb xav txog general relativity hauv 1915, nws hloov ib si li cas zaum saib lub ntug. Qhov kev tshawb xav tas mas pom tias pawg ua nkhaus spacetime, ib tug thiab muaj ib tug tibneeg ntau ntau cov hniav. Ib tug, teeb ntawm lub hnub qub nyob deb npaum ntawd yuav nyom nyob ib ncig ntawm lub hnub, Yog hais los ntawm Arthur Eddington thaum lub hnub ci dab noj hnub ntawm 1919.

Gravitational tsis nrhiav tus yuav zuam rho tawm hauj lwm tus lub xeem loj twv ua ntej ntawm general relativity. Nws yuav qha uas cov los twv yog Einstein, leej twg tsis kam ntseeg hauv qhov dub nws tus kheej, tuav hauv dab tsi yog tus tseem huab realm ntawm physics ranks tseeb.

Tiam sis muaj no ntxiv rau cov foundations ntawm gravitational tsis tshaj ib tsab tseeb tiag lawv nyob ua ib ke. Yog lub teeb liab LIGO strong hais rumours, seev tshiab yuav tsum ua mus ntes tau lub ntiajteb txawj nqus tsis txhob colliding qhov dub thiab lwm yam txheej xwm nquag hugely thoob plaws lub ntug.

"Nws puas ua tau zoo ib yam li muaj ib lub tsom iav raj uas, tsis txhob saib cov khoom rau cov electromagnetic spectrum, ntsia lawv cov gravitational tsis,"hais Ferreira. "Peb yuav pom tej yam txawv kiag li ua tib. Ces yuav kawg qhov muag plooj tsis pom kev – gravitational tsis yog tsis zoo rau pinpointing khoom – tab sis lawv yuav pab kom peb nkag siab li cas thaum qhov dub hs vau rau ib leeg."

"Txog yog thaum twg peb twb ntsia tus ntug txoj kev tshiab, cov kev yees duab x-rays mas, nrog cov tsis mloog xov tooj cua, peb twb sab khoom zoo kawg, exotica. Yog li no yuav qhib tau qhov rais tshiab, thiab qhov tseeb peb yuav nrhiav tau cov khoom bizarre,"nws ntxiv.

Rumours tias cov LIGO pab (team) tau kuaj tau gravitational tsis tau tau circulating astrophysics zog rau lub hlis. Tab sis npog Cov soj ntsuam ntawm ntau tau sceptical thiab ntshai cov rumours yuav muaj tau sparked los ntawm cov khoom cua tseg uas muab rau cov ntaub ntawv los ntsuam xyuas cov kev cai lub pab (team) analytical.

"Tom qab tag nrho cov kev rumours li yav tag los ob peb hlis kuv yeej cia siab tias lawv los ncha moo ib cov pab nrhiav kom paub txog txij no,"hais Alberto Sesana, ib tug neeg soj ntsuam ntawm lub tsev kawm ntawv ntawm Birmingham lub Gravitational yoj Group. "Peb yuav tsum nco tias LIGO yog ib xyaum ua tej yam thiab lub tsuas yog ib qho uas yuav xyuas txog tej chaw zoo li no. Yog hais tias lawv siv qhov yuav tau kuaj tsis gravitational, yuav muab hais los ntawm lwm tus ntsuas, yog ib qhov. Tab sis lawv tau ceev faj heev ua qhov no kom zoo. Kuv ntseeg lawv muaj tseeb tseeb thiab zoo heev rau nws."

Yog ib tug uas muaj ib lub teeb liab yuav muab tshaj tawm los ntawm lwm qhov chaw, xws li ib tug khub uas neutron hnub qub spinning nyob ib leeg, los yog ib lub hnub qub neutron ntog ib lub qhov dub. Tab sis, tej txheej xwm cosmic yuav ruam yuav tsim tseg weaker tshaj cov ntsia hlau loj loj zaum cia siab tias yuav pab neeg no LIGO mus qhia.

Zaum tau txais lub foundations ntawm gravitational tsis ua ntej xwb los muaj lawv hopes dashed. Nyob rau hauv 2014, kev soj ntsuam ntawm txog kev xyaum ua tej yam hu ua Bicep2 tau thov kom muaj nrhiav tau qhov tseeb rau gravitational tsis los ntawm qhov big bang, tab sis ntxiv tsom xam los ntawm lwm pawg kuj tias lawv khaws cov chaw yuav muab nkaus qhia los ntawm chaw plua plav lwm cov kev ntsuam cov teeb liab ntsais.

Ulrich Sperhake, lub theorist nyob Cambridge University uas kev tshawb fawb li cas cov gravitational tsis yog generated ntawm qhov dub, hais tias lub zej zog heev kawg pog thiab ntawv nyob sib npaug. "Kuv tsis paub leej twg nyob lub teb expects tej yam uas tsis yog nrhiav kom tau ib tug los yog tshaj tawm,"nws hais. "Anything but chiv era tshiab hauv observational gravitational astronomy yuav tuaj ua tus loj surprise rau hnub plaub, tiam sis muaj tshua ib me quav speculative caij mus kom txog rau thaum peb mam muaj ntawm lub ntawv tshaj tawm LIGO nom."

Martin Hendry, ib tug ntawm pab neeg no LIGO nyob Glasgow University, yuav tsis muab twv rau kom paub meej txog hnub plaub cov ntawv tshaj tawm. "Kuv yuav tsis hais dab tsi ntxiv ntawm no nyob ntev tshaj li tos thiab pom. Los yog yuav tsum uas tau "saib no spacetime?"nws hais.

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