Powered by Guardian.co.ukDan l-artiklu intitolat “Għaliex qari u kitba fuq karta jista 'jkun aħjar għall-moħħ” ġie miktub minn Tom Chatfield, għall theguardian.com Tnejn 23 Frar 2015 11.10 UTC

My son huwa 18 xhur, u stajt ġiet qari kotba miegħu peress li huwa twieled. I say "qari", imma jien verament tfisser "tħares lejn" - biex ma nsemmux jifhimha, twaqqa, jitfg, titghannaq, gum, u kull ħaġa oħra ċkejkna bniedem jħobb jagħmel. Matul l-aħħar sitt xhur, għalkemm, hu beda mhux sempliċiment tħares iżda wkoll biex jirrikonoxxu ftit ittri u numri. Huwa jitlob kapital Y ta ' "jak" wara stampa fuq il-bieb tal-kamra tiegħu; H kapital huwa "qanfud"; kapital K, "Kangaroo"; u l-bqija.

qari, b'differenza speaking, hija attività żgħażagħ f'termini evoluzzjonarju. Bnedmin ġew jitkellem f'xi forma għal mijiet ta 'eluf ta' snin; aħna twelidna bil-kapaċità li jakkwistaw diskors nċiżi fil newroni tagħna. L-aktar kmieni bil-miktub, madankollu, ħarġu biss 6,000 snin ilu, u kull att tal-qari tibqa 'verżjoni ta' dak li tifel tiegħi huwa tagħlim: jidentifika l-ispeċi partikolari ta 'oġġetti fiżiċi magħrufa bħala ittri u kliem, jużaw ħafna l-istess ċirkwiti newrali kif nużaw biex jidentifikaw siġar, karozzi, annimali u kabini tat-telefown.

Huwa mhux biss kliem u ittri li aħna proċess bħala oġġetti. testi infushom, safejn imħuħ tagħna huma kkonċernati, huma pajsaġġi fiżiċi. Għalhekk m'għandux ikun sorprendenti li aħna jirrispondux b'mod differenti għall-kliem stampat fuq paġna mqabbla ma 'kliem li jidhru fuq skrin; jew li l-muftieħ għall-ftehim ta 'dawn id-differenzi tinsab fil-ġeografija ta' kliem fid-dinja.

Għall-ktieb il-ġdid tagħha, kliem Onscreen: Il-destin ta 'Reading f'Dinja Diġitali, professur lingwistika Naomi Baron wettqet stħarriġ ta 'preferenzi qari fost aktar minn 300 studenti universitarji madwar l-Istati Uniti, Ġappun, Slovakkja u l-Ġermanja. Meta jingħataw għażla bejn il-midja jvarjaw minn materjal f'forma stampata lill smartphones, laptops, e-qarrejja u desktops, 92% ta 'dawk li wieġbu wieġeb li kien kopja stampata li l-aħjar tippermettilhom li jikkonċentraw.

Din mhix riżultat probabbli li sorpriża ħafna edituri, jew xi ħadd ieħor li jaħdem mill-qrib mat-test. Waqt miktub dan l-artikolu, I miġbura ħsibijiet tiegħi permezz ta 'verżjoni ta' l-istess prinċipju: wara li tinġabar noti tiegħi onscreen, I stampata qal noti, mħarrbxa kollha fuq il-kopja stampata li jirriżulta, argumentat mal myself fil-marġini, marki exclamation jitqegħdu waħda hdejn l-punti ewlenin, mifruxa r-riżultat scrawled - u minn dan l-isfond hewed ta ' (nisperaw) argument koerenti.

X'inhuma eżattament kien għaddej hawn? Età u vizzju lagħbu naħa tagħhom. Iżda hemm ukoll għarfien xjentifiku dejjem jikber li ħafna mill-assi unrivaled ta 'screen tal - tfittxija, kapaċità boundless u qiegħ, konnessjonijiet u leaps u navigazzjoni mingħajr xkiel - huma jew mhix ta jew detta distruttivi meta niġu għal ċerti tipi ta 'qari u kitba.

Madwar tliet esperimenti fil 2013, riċerkaturi Pam Mueller u Daniel Oppenheimer qabbel l-effikaċja ta 'studenti li jieħdu noti longhand kontra ittajpjar fuq laptops. konklużjoni tagħhom: -dewmien relattiv tal-kitba bl-idejn talbiet itqal "irfigħ mentali", furzar istudenti li jitqassar aktar milli jikkwotaw verbatim - imbagħad tendenza li jiżdied il-fehim kunċettwali, applikazzjoni u ż-żamma.

Fi kliem ieħor, friction is good – at least so far as the remembering brain is concerned. Barra minn hekk, the textured variety of physical writing can itself be significant. Fl a 2012 study at Indiana University, psychologist Karin James tested five-year-old children who did not yet know how to read or write by asking them to reproduce a letter or shape in one of three ways: typed onto a computer, drawn onto a blank sheet, or traced over a dotted outline. When the children were drawing freehand, an MRI scan during the test showed activation across areas of the brain associated in adults with reading and writing. The other two methods showed no such activation.

Similar effects have been found in other tests, suggesting not only a close link between reading and writing, but that the experience of reading itself differs between letters learned through handwriting and letters learned through typing. Add to this the help that the physical geography of a printed page or the heft of a book can provide to memory, and you’ve got a conclusion neatly matching our embodied natures: the varied, eżiġenti, motor-skill-activating physicality of objects tends to light up our brains brighter than the placeless, weightless scrolling of words on screens.

F'ħafna modi, this is an unfair result, effectively comparing print at its best to digital at its worst. Spreading my scrawled-upon printouts across a desk, I’m not just accessing data; I’m reviewing the idiosyncratic geography of something I created, carried and adorned. But I researched my piece online, I’m going to type it up onscreen, and my readers will enjoy an onscreen environment expressly designed to gift resonance: a geography, a context. Screens are at their worst when they ape and mourn paper. At their best, they’re something free to engage and activate our wondering minds in ways undreamt of a century ago.

Above all, it seems to me, we must abandon the notion that there is only one way of reading, or that technology and paper are engaged in some implacable war. We’re lucky enough to have both growing self-knowledge and an opportunity to make our options as fit for purpose as possible – as slippery and searchable or slow with friction as the occasion demands.

I can’t imagine teaching my son to read in a house without any physical books, pens or paper. But I can’t imagine denying him the limitless words and worlds a screen can bring to him either. I hope I can help him learn to make the most of both – and to type/copy/paste/sketch/scribble precisely as much as he needs to make each idea his own.

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