He aha haapii ia tatou niho o te arewhana e pā ana ki te kukuwhatanga

What an elephant’s tooth teaches us about evolution

Ki te whakamatau i taua tauiraa whanaketanga kore he wa katoa ki raro, ki te ira, whakatuwhera tika mangai o te arewhana ...


Powered e Guardian.co.ukTēnei tuhinga ui “He aha haapii ia tatou niho o te arewhana e pā ana ki te kukuwhatanga” i tuhituhia e Alice Roberts, mo te Observer i runga i 31 Rātapu January 2016 07.00 UTC

roa i mua, pea ara i mua i nga kohu whakanui o te wā, i reira ko te hapu nui o kararehe i noho i roto i Africa. tīmata te kōrero etahi 10 tupu miriona tau ki muri, me te ka te utuafare, a wherahia atu. A tawhio noa e toru miriona tau ki muri, maringi te peka o reira ki Ūropi me Ahia. Rite neke nga kararehe ki whenua hou, urutau ratou ki atu ta'akí raki. I te pae hopea, etahi whiti te piriti o Beringia, heke i Asia te raki-rawhiti ki Amerika Te Tai Tokerau.

tangi te reira i te aamu maheni. He pono ko te katoa e pā ana ki to tatou tupuna tenei - te takenga mai African i roto i te Miocene, ki parawae matua putanga i parataiao onamata i roto i Kenya; etahi o tenei rōpū te whakanohonoho tangata Europe ko Ahia; te hīkoi ki te ao hou. Otiia e kore e he te aamu o tangata onamata tenei: o australopithecines, paranthropines me Homo. Ko te kōrero o te elephantines tenei: o mammoths, Loxodonta a Elephas.

i puta i roto i to ratou tupuna gomphothere e - Ko te āhuatanga tino a Tūrongo, o arewhana ora - kahiwi me hoana 20 miriona tau ki muri. Hoki te kararehe nui ki te kaki poto, te kātua ko te whanaketanga tino whai hua, tuku enei proboscideans ki te kapo rau, ka kawea ratou ki te mangai, ko te kupu whakarato i tētahi painga whanaketanga.

i haere tahi te whanaketanga o te kātua me te huringa o incisors ki hoana e te tauiraa i roto i te āhua o te angaanga. Roto i te mangai, i te huri ano nga niho. He kauae poto mahue iti ruma mo te huinga ki tonu i te molars, i hiahiatia nga niho ki te e taea ki te paturu utu o te oraraa roa o te kākahu taimaha. whakaratohia Evolution he otinga tau ki ngā raruraru e rua. Engari i te he i te huinga katoa o te premolars me molars Kīkī ki te mangai i te wa ano - ano i roto i tou mangai - i reira ko noa he kotahi, niho nui noho ia taha o te kauae runga, me te raro i tetahi wa. Ka rite ki tenei niho kakahu iho, tetahi e te tipu i muri reira, rite ki te paheke ki wahi ka hinga te niho mau-i roto i roto i, whakarato i te kararehe ki runga ki ono huinga o niho i roto i te oraraa.

mana'o o He kaitoi o te gomphotherium
mana'o o He kaitoi o te gomphotherium, he tupuna e wha-te wëtä o te arewhana, me ona uri. Whakaahua: Alamy

Nga niho o gomphotheres parawae me arewhana tiaki te tohu o to ratou kai. Te ōwehenga o kanoirite rerekē o waro i roto i te tohu niho whakaatu ranei i arotahi atu te takitahi ngā i runga tirotiro i runga i te rau ranei kai tarutaru. timata tuatahi nga maturuturu o Africa ki horahia a tawhio noa 10 miriona tau ki muri, me te heheu tātaritanga kanoirite e kē gomphotheres mutunga, me te tīmatanga o arewhana ki te tarutaru kai te nuinga a tawhio noa waru miriona tau ki muri. i roto i te arewhana, kitea tenei pana i roto i te tahi atu huringa ki o ratou niho ngaungau, i meinga e toru nga wa rite roroa, ki te tini o te tupuke tohu. Ko enei urutaunga ki te kai auaha puta a tawhio noa e rima miriona tau ki muri, e toru miriona tau i muri i taua pana i rau ngohengohe ki pātītī uaua. Ki te tohu o te taumira e nehenehe tatou e whakatutuki ina titiro tawhiti hoki ki te mua, te reira maha uaua ki te mohio ki te mea ka haere mai te tuatahi - he huringa i roto i te whanonga ranei i roto i te anatomy. Otiia i roto i tenei take, te reira tino mārama: nga huringa ki niho lagged milioni o tau i muri i te huringa i roto i te kai.

I roto i to tatou kōrero kunenga, te rauropi ano pinepine te mea ki te tākaro i te tūranga hāngū: he pärurenga kaha, tata, o huringa ki tona taiao irakētanga ranei i roto i ona ira. Ko Ko te hopoia rerekē te korero o te niho o te arewhana, he huringa i roto i te whanonga mārama mua he huringa i roto i te anatomy (me te whāriki tohutohu iranga mō te whanaketanga niho). Mahalo Aua ra e miharo tatou e tenei: plasticity whanaketanga te tikanga e takoto te āhua whakamutunga o te tinana o te kararehe te kore anake e DNA engari ano i ngā āhuatanga o waho. A ko ake ngāwari i roto i te ara taunekeneke ratou ki o ratou taiao i to tatou i te tahi taime amo kararehe. Ka rite ki te whakaatu arewhana, te pūtake o te minamina ana i roto i te kukuwhatanga ahei te haere mai i te whanonga nui atu i i ira.

Niho i roto i te angaanga arewhana African.
Niho i roto i te angaanga arewhana African. Whakaahua: Images o Africa Photobank / Alamy

te reira taea noa e tenei momo o te huringa, ahu ki te huringa i roto i te whanonga, takaro he wāhi nui i roto i te kukuwhatanga tangata. A tawhio noa rua miriona tau ki muri, i reira ko te neke nui i roto i te āhua tinana atu i waewae poto, e te tuatahi puta i roto i erectus Homo. te reira pea e tokomaha o nga āhuatanga kikokiko hou, i roa waewae ki uaua gluteal rahi me te chunkier Achilles tendons, E pā ana ki te nui haere pai i roto i te rere. Ki te timata te rōpū o te taata ki te rere te wā,, pea tuku ia ratou ki te hopu atu tōtika hamuhamu ranei, e whai huringa kikokiko, tautautefito roto i nga youngsters tonu-whakawhanake. Kia meinga rere ha konga mahu'inga o te whanonga, tetahi irakētanga e whakarei ake te reira e kia titiro atu. Ko te tumu mau o te minamina ana, pea, ko taua tauiraa i roto i te whanonga, me te kore i te irakētanga ira.

Nga proboscideans nui i haereere nga whenua African te wahi tipu i to tatou iho mau tupuna faahaamana'o ia tatou e kore e mai i nga wa katoa e minamina ana whanaketanga i roto i te ira.

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