He tokomaha rawa ngā neurons pahuatia te Pūmahara

Too Many Neurons Spoil the Memory

heheu rangahau New nga tikanga pūtau i e puta mahara-whakawaehere whatunga neuronal


Powered e Guardian.co.ukTēnei tuhinga ui “pahua maha rawa ngā neurons te mahara” i tuhituhia e Mo Costandi, hoki theguardian.com i runga i te Paraire 12 o Hui-tanguru 2016 15.15 UTC

Whakaaturia mai ki ahau te wahi e noho i te whakaaro, wareware karanga noa koe ratou atu? Whakaaturia mai ki ahau te wahi e noho i te mau oaoa o mua, a te wahi i nga aroha onamata, A, no te ka whakahou ano ratou, me te po o te warewaretanga mua, Kia taiawhiotia ahau wa me ngā wāhi tawhiti mamao, a ka kawea e tamahanahana ki te pouri hakari, me te po o te mamae? Hea e haere ai koe, e whakaaro? Ki te aha whenua mamao ko tau rere? Ki te returnest koe ki te taime hakari o te tangihanga, E kawea e koe ki nga whakamarietanga ki runga ki ou pakau, me hupe me te honi me te pama, Ranei paihana i te parae koraha, i nga kanohi o te envier?

I roto i tona pehepehe epic, I kitea o te Tamahine o Albion, William Blake whakamiharo e pā ana ki te āhua o te mahara, tona kaha ki te hinengaro kawe tatou ki nga wa tawhiti, me nga wahi, me nga kare kaha, e rua pai, me te kino, e taea to tatou mau haamana'oraa marea. Kei te ruri pātai e noho tino anōtia i teie mahana, pērā i te mea tupu ki to tatou haamana'oraa roa-ngaro, a me pehea e tatou te tiki ia ratou?

Neke atu i te rua rau tau i muri mai, nga tikanga o te rokiroki mahara me te tiki ko nga ari tino inarā ako i roto i te pūtaiao roro. te whānui whakapono te reira e te hanganga mahara kau te whakapakari o ngā hononga i waenganui i ngā whatunga mōwai tohaina o neurons i roto i te hanganga roro huaina te hippocampus, me taua tiki muri ngā faaitoitoraa o te rōpū neuronal taua. Na ano, uaua tonu neuroscientists ki te whakahoki pātai a Blake tino.

Na, Kua hanga he rōpū o kairangahau i te University o Geneva tetahi mua faufaa i roto i to tatou matauranga o nga tikanga neural whakakaupapa hanganga mahara. Mā te whakamahi i te tikanga kāwanatanga-o-te-toi huaina optogenetics, whakaatu ratou pehea nga rōpū neuronal e whakawaehere haamana'oraa puta, heheu e rōpū kei roto tokomaha rawa neurons - ranei torutoru rawa - waimaero tiki mahara.

optogenetics Ko te tikanga tino kaha e whai wāhi whakauru pūmua pükohuwai huaina channelrhodopsins (ChRs) ki neurons. renders te pūtau tairongo ki te marama tenei, penei e taea te whakawhiti ngā rōpū tauwhāiti o ratou i runga i atu ranei, te whakamahi i ngātere o te marama taiaho tukua ki te roro mā muka whatu, i runga i te tauinewā o hākonamano.

I roto i nga tau tata nei, Kua whakamahia kairangahau optogenetics ki tapa neurons hippocampal e riro itoito i roto i te hanganga mahara i roto i te roro kiore, a ki te rāwekeweke i te rōpū tapanga i roto i ngā ara. I roto i tenei ara, ratou e nehenehe e faaitoito i te taua rōpū ki kaha ai tiki mahara; whakawhiti haamana'oraa mataku i runga atu ranei; tahuri haamana'oraa kino ki te hunga pai, ranei hurihia tumuaki tuarua; a tae noa rawatia ētehi haamana'oraa katoa teka ki te roro o kiore.

Te rangahau hou, arahina e Pablo Mendez me te mutunga o Dominique Muller, nei fakamamahi mate i roto i te ati e rere i April o whakamutunga tau, hanga i runga i tenei mahi mua. hanga ana e ratou kiore ira engineered faaiteraa i ¶ i roto i ngā pūtau granule ki tetahi taha o te roro, i roto i te rohe dentate o te hippocampus. pūtau Granule Ko nga neurons parau tumu i roto i tenei rohe o te hippocampus, e whakaaro ki te kia tino mō mahi hippocampal pērā i mahara, me te mokowā navigation. whakanohoia ana e ratou nga kararehe ki taki nui, tuku etahi o ratou ki te tūhura i tō rātou taiao hou. Na, ratou optogenetically whakahohe pūtau granule tupurangi i roto i te tahi mau o nga kiore, engari e kore e etahi.

pūtau granule Hippocampal te faaiteraa i Channelrhodopsin (i roto i te whero).
pūtau granule Hippocampal te faaiteraa i Channelrhodopsin (i roto i te whero). image: Pablo Mendez

A, no te dissected ratou, ka te uiui roro nga kararehe, 45 meneti i muri mai, kitea nga kairangahau tūhura mokowā mahi whītiki i roto i rōpū o neurons hippocampal, rite whakaritea e te taumata o cFos, he pera-ka karanga ira 'wawe tonu' kē e te i runga i hohoro ka tīmata neurons ki te ahi. nui, kiore whakaaetia ki te tūhura i ō rātou taki i ngā tau teitei o cFos-te faaite pūtau granule atu te hunga mahue i roto i a ratou taki kāinga mo te roanga o te whakamātau, a i tau tino teitei o te hunga i riro whakaongaonga optogenetic i roto i te tūhura cFosneurons -positive atu te hunga e kore e ta e.

Tenei whakakitea e tūhura mokowā tokona mahi i roto i te rōpū o ngā pūtau granule dentate, me e liliu matapōkeretia te mahi o enei whatunga ki whakaongaonga optogenetic faarahi te rahi o te rōpū, ranei te maha o ngā pūtau i roto i a ratou.

Ko e raweke i te rahi o te rōpū i tetahi pānga i runga i ngā whanonga? Ki te kitea i roto i, whakanohoia Mendez me ana hoa kiore te faaiteraa i ¶ i roto i to ratou hippocampi ki tetahi atu whare herehere, a hoatu ana e ratou te maha o ngā puranga hiko ngawari. Ki te tāruarua o tenei maimoatanga, nga kiore hohoro ako ki wehi i te whare herehere, a hohoro tio ake ka hoki ki reira, ara, no te ratou kahore e hoatu atu puranga.

tenei wa, nga kairangahau optogenetically whakaongaonga pūtau granule tupurangi i roto i te tahi mau o nga kiore, engari e kore e etahi, i roto i te whakangungu, roto i te tikanga ki te whakapiki ake i te rahi o te ensemble neuronal e encodes te mahara mataku. Ēnei kiore faaite iti whanonga mīti ka hoki mai ki te whare herehere taua atu i ētahi atu nei riro kahore whakaongaonga. Otiia i hanga ano te whakaongaonga haamana'oraa wehi horihori, pērā i piri ake nga kararehe i roto i te tahi atu mau tupuraa, rawa.

Inhibition o ngā pūtau granule tupurangi i te pānga taua, whakaaro e whakarereketia noa te maha o neurons i roto i te ensemble pokanoa ki te kaha nga kararehe 'ki haamana'o te mau haamana'oraa mataku. He ōrite ki te hunga o te ako mua ēnei kitenga, i whakakitea hoki e hëoi whakaongaonga granule mahi pūtau ranei impairs ako horopaki.

Ki te matau he aha ai e tenei, whakamana nga kairangahau tetahi atu raupapa o ngā, te whakamahi i microelectrodes ki te tuhi i te mahi o neurons i roto i te poro o te kiko hippocampal. whakakitea enei ngā e whakaongaonga optogenetic o ngā pūtau granule hua he whakautu pakari i roto i interneurons tata, e tuku i te Kapa neurotransmitter inhibitory.

Ko te kupu, te pupuhi o ngā pūtau granule arata'i interneurons inhibitory, e haaparuparu pūtau granule pātata, me te ārai ia ratou i tomo i te ensemble. I roto i tenei ara, puta interneurons ki te ū haamana'oraa hou-i hanga e ture i te maha me te tohatoha o ngā pūtau granule whai wāhi i roto i haamana'oraa waehere. Whakaoho silencing pūtau granule tupurangi ranei ētehi tenei tukanga me ketia te maha o ngā pūtau granule, e ai hanga i te haamana'oraa hou iu.

"I roto i tenei ako, whakamahia matou he ahua ohie o te mahara, te mahara o te horopaki mokowā, engari kei te ako i te wero pehea e tamau aau wheako matatini ake, a me pehea te mahi i te roro ki te rokiroki o ngā wheako maha,"Ta Mendez. "Ke Mahino enei mau uiraa taea te tauturu ia tatou ia taa i te rohe o te kaha rokiroki o te roro."

tohutoro

Stefanelli, T., et al. (2016). Hippocampal Mana Interneurons Somatostatin te Rahi o Neuronal Memory rōpū. Neuron, 89: 1-12. Doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.01.024 [Abstract]

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