Kei te e rere ana i te pono i roto i reira: he aha wherahia tere atu i ake rauhanga

The truth is rushing out there: why conspiracies spread faster than ever

Mai 9/11 ki te whakaeke Paris, i Ebola ki Isis, nga hui ao nui rata te hāngai counter-kōrero i te 'truthers', etahi na katoa-taka e tango ratou i runga i te oraraa o te iwi. E waeahia tatou roro ki te whakapono, rite te pukapuka hou tohe? Na taua i taea whakaaro mau e painga?


Powered e Guardian.co.ukTēnei tuhinga ui “Kei te e rere ana i te pono i roto i reira: he aha wherahia tere atu i ake rauhanga” i tuhituhia e Rawiri Shariatmadari, mo te Guardian ki Rāhoroi 26 Hakihea 2015 10.00 UTC

"Te haamana'o nei au i te tai'oraa e pā ana ki Final Fantasy VII, he kiriata I tino ahau titiro atu ki. Toku tauhohenga tuatahi ko te oto e ko rua tau atu te reira -. No te mea e ka hiahia kia tatou i raro i te mana hōia "Ko 2004, a ko Matthew Elliott i hohonu. Elliott, i San Antonio, Texas, i te tuatahi unu ki ariā whakatakotoria ka ko ia 19, i roto i te muri o 9/11. "E au ra ta'ealafakatataua reira e taea te whakaekea tatou,"Ta e ia i tenei ra. I roto i tona titauraa ki te hanga tikanga o taua mea i meatia haere puta noa i ia te ingoa "truther" kaupapa, he nāianei o te whakaaro e waha whakahenga mo nga pāhuatia i te kuwaha o te kāwanatanga US.

"Ko te ara e whakatakotoria i roto i te nuinga o ariā whakatakotoria, arata'i tonu tetahi mea ki tetahi, na meinga ahau i reira whakaaro e huaina he rōpū tikanga kuranga, te Order New World katoa. Tenei e arahi katoa ki te ture hōia, me te tango tino o to tatou rangatiratanga,"Ta ia. He tekau tau i muri mai, Elliott, i teie nei 34, Ko te "ora" theorist e whakatakotoria, ka tahuri tona tuara ki runga ki te tirohanga e taha ngäwari tonu etahi piringa, kaha kaha mahi ki te ngākau nuitanga o te iwi noa. haere mai te huringa āta, engari whakaaro ia rawa rerekē inaianei. "E kore e taea e koe ara tiki tokomaha o te 50 āhua ki te whakaae i runga i nga mea. Ngā manaakitanga pai Pākehā te māia, me te Ahia ki te tiki i runga i te poari. "

tauhohenga o Elliott ki te whētuki o 9/11 ko matara i rerekē. I pera tuatahi nga whakaeke, na kino, e rave rahi o tatou takatakahi ki hanga tikanga o ratou. i puputu'u whakahē ranei pūrongo wawe: rite ki te hua etahi tukinotia te putanga e pā ana o ngā e te ti'aturi. He ōwehenga o te hunga i roto i te tahuri plumped hoki te whakamārama e e rapua e te haavare, me te ruruku i runga i te tauine nui.

Tenei e kore e maere tatou: te reira i te tauira toutou e te i muri i nga ru ao, a i te muri a'ei o te whakaeke Paris, kua whakaarahia reira tona matenga ano. I roto i te ra o te whakaeke kaiwhakatuma i runga i te pane a French, blogs i totohe whakaputaina e ratou te mahi o te kāwanatanga - he pera-ka karanga "haki teka" mahi. okioki nga take i runga i te whakaaro e Isis ko te hanga āta o kāwanatanga uru. More tata, te rōia mō te hapu o Syed Farook, tetahi o nga kaikopere San Bernardino, nounou conspiratorial pupü ka mea ia: "He te te rota o te hihiri i tenei wa ki te haapapu hanga mahinga e ka meinga mana pū ranei e pokaia mauahara ranei ki te hapori Muslim ranei."

tikanga a tawhio noa-te-karaka kapinga o ngā ao i reira he he supply tamau o te raruraru me te hepohepo no ki tatou whakamaori. Kōrero o aho e unuhia e ringa huna e te tino kai o to tatou faaanaanataeraa, i a Spectre Blofeld ki te whakatakotoria ana Baroque o London tirohia,, tetahi o nga ngaahi tulama Ingarangi tino manohi o te tau, i wetewete i roto i te tauira mīharo o te kāhua Wairau. e kore ngā taua ti'aturiraa i roto i te ariā e whakatakotoria ana e hoko te reira atu whānui, ta huaketo Swami, ahorangi o te hinengaro pāpori i Anglia Ruskin wānanga: i kore i te rangahau i mahia ano, parau ia ki ahau, i reira te rota o te taunakitanga paki ki te fokotu'u e whakapono i roto i te rauhanga kua noho tika pūmau mō te-rau hawhe whakamutunga ranei kia. He aha kua puta ke, Heoi, Ko te tere ki nei ariā hou e hanga e. "Ko te he tohu o te ao nui atu integrated,"Ta ia. hohoro te ipurangi katoa ake, tuku takitahi e whakatakotoria-whakaaro ki te hono ka whakatakoto ratou whakaaro. roto i te rerekē, ka mau te reira marama mō ariā e pā ana ki Pearl Harbor ki te whakawhanake.

Karen Douglas, tetahi atu kaimātai hinengaro pāpori, taiawhiotia tenei wāhi. "Kua puta ke tauira kōrero o People tino te rota i runga i nga tau torutoru whakamutunga. te reira noa na nui māmā hoki ki te iwi whiwhi wāhi ki ngā mōhiohio e whakatakotoria tae noa ki te whai ratou he uri o te feaa iti e pā ana ki te kōrero mōhiohio. E mea tino ngāwari ki te haere ipurangi me te kitea atu te iwi e ite i te ara ano rite koe. "

He katoa e pängia ana ki tenei ahua o te whakaaro, ranei ko reira te tiaki o te taniko tino? ka whakairia Douglas te reira atu noa atu i te nuinga o tatou ite. "whakaaturia rangahau tata kua e pā ana ki te hawhe o Ameliká whakapono i te iti rawa kia kotahi ariā e whakatakotoria,"Ta ia. "E rapu koe i te iwi toharite; iwi kia haere mai koe puta noa i runga i te huarahi. "

Ko te hoki te tirohanga o Rob Brotherton, nei pukapuka hou, Minds hihira, tūhura te huru e auroro tatou ki te whakapono i roto i rauhanga. fakatokanga ia ki e noho ana i roto i te whakawa, mai katoa o tatou i hinengaro hihira - a mo te take pai. Tāutu i ngā tauira me te te tairongo ki tuma taea ko te aha kua awhinatia tatou ora i roto i te ao i reira te maha he i roto i te natura ki te tiki a koutou. "Ahu pukapuka whakatakotoria ariā ki te haere mai i reira i te wāhi o te tirohanga o debunking ratou. hiahia ahau ki te tango i te huarahi rerekē, ki mei te take katoa o mehemea he pono teka ranei nga ariā me haere mai i reira i te tirohanga o te hinengaro,"Ta ia. "Ko te rītaha intentionality, te rītaha proportionality, rītaha haamauraa. to tatou hanga ki to tatou mau feruriraa enei quirks e taea arahi ia tatou ki te whakapono nga mea tipua, kahore mohio e te aha tatou e whakapono ratou ".

Ben Whishaw London tutei
Ben Whishaw i London tutei, tetahi o nga ngaahi tulama Ingarangi tino manohi o te tau, i wetewete i roto i te tauira mīharo o te kāhua Wairau. Whakaahua: BBC / WTTV

"Wa tupu tetahi rangirua, to tatou i tenei rītaha ki te mana'o i te tikanga reira - e whakaritea te reira tētahi, e reira ko etahi ahua o te whakaaro pokapū ranei muri reira, nui atu i te whakaaro ko te reira noa te aituā, hepohepo ranei, he putanga kāore i ranei o te tahi mea. "tenei rītaha intentionality, ta Brotherton, Ka taea te kitea i te kōhungahunga. "Ki te ui koe he kuao koati aha tētahi tihe, whakaaro te koati i ta te reira e ratou i runga i te whakaaro, e tino me oaoa i te tangata tihe. te reira i muri noa e pā ana ki te tau o wha, e rima tatou e haamata i te haapii e kore nga mea katoa te tikanga e te katoa te. koe taea ki te takahi i taua whakawa aunoa tatou. Ko whakaatu te rangahau e reira noho ki a tatou tonu noa ki te pakeketanga. "

Hei tauira, Kua whakaaturia rangahau e ka inu iwi waipiro, Ko ratou pea atu ki te whakamārama mahi rangirua rite ka i āta. "Na, ki te kei koutou i te pāparakāuta me tutetute tētahi koutou me ringihia to koutou inu, ki te mea inu koutou tuatahi, kia tuhituhi koe i te reira atu ano he hape harakore. Otiia ki te kei te inu torutoru i roto ia koutou, Na koe ake pea ki te whakaaro i te reira ratou i runga i te whakaaro koe, e ko te reira i te ohipa tukituki. "

Ka rite ki te nuinga o ngā āhuatanga tuakiri, proneness ki intentionality rītaha rerekē puta noa i te taupori. "Ko te tahi iwi atu i haria ki reira atu ia vetahi ê." A, whakamārama Brotherton, i reira ko te faatanoraa ohipa iti engari pono i waenganui i taua susceptibility me te whakapono i roto i te ariā whakatakotoria.

tākaro hoki ngā āhuatanga o waho i te wahi, o te akoranga. hoki Ryan, nei ui e waihotia ai e ahau tona ingoa whakamutunga, ko mahu'inga te mana o te takitahi whai mana kotahi. Ko te Johnny, he hoa me te bandmate, nei whakakitea ia pukapuka, me te kōpae e pā ana ki te kāwanatanga te ao, me te "mahi ano te Guru o te tini". I te wa ano i rite whakauru ia ki te kaupapa truther, "I te whakauru ahau ia ki te waiata e kore ahau hiahia rongo a tino aroha". I te teitei o tona whai wāhi, Ryan kupu whakapono ia i te whānuitanga o ngā ariā e whakatupu he, tae atu "chemtrails"- Te whakaaro e roto i te ara i mahue e rererangi matū kikino tikanga ki te tara ranei iwi paihana; e Aids me Ebola i whakaurua e te kāwanatanga ki te whakahaere i taupori; e te i faked ūnga marama; e te taonga tangohia i āperekoti huaina laetrile ko te rongoa whai hua mō te mate pukupuku, engari kua rāhuitia e te FDA me tonoa atu ano quackery ki te tiaki i nga ngākau nuitanga o Big Pharma. "Ka takoki ahau aku hononga ki toku utuafare kino. Ko te tonu nga mea koutou aroha i te nuinga e hiahia ana koe ki te 'ake ara'. mutu ake ahau i roto i ngā tautohetohe tino fakamā me tohenga,"Ta ia.

Ko tera taha o te mamae meinga reira mo te hunga e tata ki a ia, he whakapono korokē o Ryan kino? He tūpato o rubbishing ngärara whakatupu he katoa Karen Douglas rite kino. "Thinking i roto i taua ara, Me whai i te reira te tahi mau hopearaa pai. Ki te haere te katoa a tawhio noa tika tali ta i korerotia e ratou ki te taha kāwanatanga, rangatira, kamupene rongoā, te tangata, katahi e riro tatou i te paihere o te hipi, really”. I te tahi atu i te ringa, the effects of certain theories on behaviour can be damaging. Douglas’s own research [pdf download] has shown that exposure to the idea that the British government was involved in the death of Princess Diana reduced people’s intention to engage in politics. Waihoki, subjects who read a text stating that climate change was a hoax by scientists seeking funding were less likely to want to take action to reduce their carbon footprint. Na anti-vaccine conspiracy narratives make people less likely to vaccinate their children, a clear public health risk.

Should we try to stamp conspiracy theories out, ka? Part of Brotherton’s argument is that they’re a natural consequence of the way our brains have evolved. E kore noa e, but trying to disprove them can backfire. “Any time you start trying to debunk conspiracy theories, for the people who really believe, that’s exactly what they would expect if the conspiracy were real,"Ta ia.

Swami sees things differently. “Experimental work that we’ve done shows that it’s possible to reduce conspiracist ideation.” How? Swami found that people who had been encouraged to think analytically during a verbal task were less likely to accept conspiracy theories afterwards. For him, this hints at an important potential role for education. “The best way is, at a societal level, to promote analytical thinking, to teach critical thinking skills.” But that’s not all. When people have faith in their representatives, understand what they are doing and trust that they are not corrupt, they are less likely to believe in coverups. That’s why political transparency ought to be bolstered wherever possible – and corporate transparency, rawa. “A lot of people have trouble accepting a big organisation’s or government’s narratives of an event, because they’re seen as untrustworthy, they’re seen as liars,” argues Swami.

Improved teaching and changes in political and business culture would undoubtedly help. But conspiracy theories can be rejected for personal reasons, rawa. Ryan’s view changed with loss of his “guru”.

“I kinda dropped out of contact with Johnny after he got married and had a baby,"Ta ia. “He was getting further and further into it, and I just couldn’t keep up with the mental gymnastics involved.” He started to look for alternative explanations – less exciting, but more plausible ones. “I looked at the people debating on the national level, for the presidency and such. No way these guys speaking in platitudes and generalisations could really be behind a global conspiracy to enslave or kill me. They weren’t doing a particularly good job of it either, considering how happy I was living my life.

“That was the epiphany, tino. I was free. I was happy. None of the doom and gloom predicted and promised ever came.” For Ryan, by then 27, the bizarre ride was over. A world that pitted him against the forces of evil had all the appeal of a spy drama. But real life was less like a story – and in some ways more depressing. What does he think are the forces that really shape things? “Most of what is wrong in the world nowadays – well, I would put it down to incompetence and greed. A lack of compassion.”

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