Te runga Kaahu hou e wha i roto i te uru

The top four modern killers in the west

 

Powered e Guardian.co.ukTēnei tuhinga ui “Te runga Kaahu hou e wha i roto i te uru” i tuhituhia e Robin McKie, mo te Observer i runga i Rāhoroi 6 Pipiri 2015 23.05 UTC

CANCER

Kei hea tatou
Kua whakamatauria te whawhai ki te mate pukupuku ki te kia kotahi o rahi te mau tamataraa hinengaro me mahi o nga wa hou. He rau tau ki muri, wawaotanga hāparapara tautokona e ngā momo wawe o te radiation therapy i anake nga patu i te tikanga o te taote. mai reira, he maha o takaí matua kua puta ke e.

Ko te tuatahi te kupu whakataki o te hahau, i roto i te puka o te raau taero e i ahu mai, ho'i, i te hau pua nani i whakamahia ano te patu i roto i te pakanga tuatahi ao. Doctors nei kawea i roto i autopsies i runga i ngā pārurenga hau tuhia e leva reira wehewehenga pūtau, a ki putanga whakawhanakehia e tauturu i mutu pūtau puku i proliferating. ka enei maimoatanga ngā i roto i te 1950.

aha teie nei?
Rite whakamua rangahau genomic i roto i te rau tau 20, Kua whakamahia kaipūtaiao e mohio ki te whakawhanake maimoatanga hou. Kua whakaurua fakalakalaka Tata whakaora hāngai. Ko atu tauwhāiti i roto i to ratou mahi ki te pukupuku no te rave ratou i runga i ngā whāinga rāpoi e pā ana ki ngā pūtau mate pukupuku enei, Tena ia ngāue nuinga chemotherapies paerewa i runga i te katoa pūtau tere wehewehe, kia noa ratou ranei matepukupuku.

Hei tauira, i roto i te pā ana ki tetahi i roto i te tūroro mate pukupuku uma rima, pūtau puku i nui rawa o te pūmua tupu-whakatairanga mohiotia rite HER2 i runga i to ratou mata. He tino pukuriri pukupuku uma ki te nui rawa o tenei pūmua, kitea kaipūtaiao. He maha o taero, pērā i Herceptin, Kua whakawhanakehia ki ngä tenei pūmua, me te ārai i te horapa o ngā pūtau puku. Ko inaianei ēnei whakaora hāngai he nui rawa i roto i te whawhai ki te mate pukupuku.

He aha e nga raruraru nui?
Kei te hanga nui te ahunga whakamua, engari kia kia pūtea, nui atu i hangarau te raruraru puta. Te whakatupuranga hou o taero i whakawhanakehia e tino utu, uiui o te utu.

Tangohia te pī hangarau o immunotherapy. riro pūtau Cancer he ahua o te rūrū ngaro e kukume ana T-pūtau, he wahi matua o parepare anti-mate o te tinana, kaua ki te patu i a ratou. I roto i te 1990, kitea pūtaiao he rāpoi ngota i runga i T-pūtau e ko te wahi o tenei rūrū. Kei te mohiotia te reira rite te mate programmed 1 (PD1) a, mai i tona kitea, Kua kairangahau e ngana ana ki te whakapōrearea i ona mahi.

Nga taero hou huraina i roto i Chicago wiki whakamutunga ko te hua o tenei mahi. Mau tamataraa i runga i te tūroro ki te mate tonapuku matatau, e he auau mate nui, Kua whakaputaina kē hua faaitoito, engari whakatupato pūtaiao e reira i taea e nui taha-pānga i roto i te tahi mau tūroro.

kiriata roro
Whakaahua: Alamy

tupu

Kei hea tatou?
e kore te mea mau tupu he mate. Ko te reira i te putanga o te maha āhuatanga rerekē. Ko te noa tino o enei mate o Alzheimer engari etahi ngā dementia iaia me te tupu frontotemporal. faaite katoa o enei puka tohu noa, Heoi. Ko ētahi o ēnei mate mahara, whakama me te tuakiri huringa.

Ahakoa he tino tupu kore te putanga mooni o whiwhi tawhito, te tūponotanga o te whakawhanake i te huru kore whakanuia ana ki te tau. Ko te kupu, rite mate hopuhopu whati i roto i te UK, ka takoha iho auau tahuti mō ngā āhuatanga mate pukupuku, me te ngakau, atu me te ake iwi kua taea ki te ora ki te koroheketanga. (Life tümanako i roto i te UK he inaianei 79 hoki nga tangata me te 83 hoki nga wahine.)

teie mahana, it is calculated that there are now more than 850,000 people with dementia in the UK.

aha teie nei?
Na roto i te 2025, the number of cases of dementia in the UK is expected to rise to more than 1 miriona. Na roto i te 2050, it is projected to exceed 2 miriona. I tua atu, the condition has been found to be particularly common in women. O te 850,000 dementia patients in Britain, 500,000 are female. Ka rite ki te hua, women over 60 are now twice as likely to get dementia as breast cancer.

Scientists are now working on ways to use genetic and stem-cell technologies to understand the detailed causes of the various forms of dementia and, in the long run, to develop drugs that could slow down the loss of faculties in those affected by the condition.

Scientists caution that this aspiration remains a long-term goal and warn there is much work that still needs to be done.

What are the problems?
A key problem for those trying to tackle dementia is a lack of resources. There have been major investments in heart disease and cancer research in recent years and these have helped bring down death rates.

But that has not happened with dementia, said Matthew Norton, head of policy for Alzheimer’s Research UK. “Just look at the figures,"Ka mea ia.

“Total spend in the UKfrom charities and the governmenton dementia in 2013 was £73.8m. i te rerekē, for cancer, that figure was £503m.” This underfunding means reduced manpower, say campaigners. There are some 3,600 dementia researchers working in the UK –about 19,000 fewer than those working on cancer, even though dementia costs the UK economy more. Na, prospects of finding treatments to slow or halt the loss of faculties associated with dementia will be limited, say researchers.

Heart attack, conceptual computer artwork
Whakaahua: PASIEKA/SPL/Getty Images/Brand X

HEART DISEASE

Kei hea tatou?
Over the past 50 tau, there has been an impressive improvement in mortality rates from cardiovascular disease in Britain. This point was precisely summed up by Peter Weissberg, medical director of the British Heart Foundation. “The foundation was established in 1961, when heart disease was ravaging the country. It caused nearly half of all deaths in the UK in that year.”

With hindsight, it is not hard to see why. Smoking levels were four times higher than today, while eating foods high in saturated fatswhole milk, butter and red meatwas the norm.

teie mahana, those foods have been replaced by lower-fat options, vegetable oils, skimmed milk and poultry. We have medicines to reduce blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and it is possible to open blocked or narrowed arteries without major surgery.

aha teie nei?
Devising drugs to treat damaged hearts suffers from a key problem: they are difficult to test. “We cannot keep cutting patients open to remove heart-tissue samples. That is just not practical or ethical,” said Chris Denning of Nottingham University.

A solution for scientists in recent years has been to turn to the use of stem cells. At Nottingham University researchers have taken cells from patients’ skin and bathed them in nutrients in order to transform them into stem cells, a type of cell that can be turned into any tissue. These cells are then developed into heart cells, which are kept in Petri dishes for testing purposes.

“That means they are ideal for trying new drugs on. It is an incredibly important development,” added Denning.

Other scientists believe that it may be possible to use stem cells to directly repair, damaged hearts in the near future.

What are the problems?
Although medical procedures continue to improve prospects for saving the lives of those who suffer from cardiovascular disease, there are a host of epidemiological issues that threaten to offset these benefits.

Hei tauira, the rate of smoking declined sharply between 1972 a 1994 but the fall-off has since slowed down. And the prevalence of heavy drinking has not changed substantially since the 1970s. Kino, childhood obesity has been increasing in both boys and girls since the mid-1980s, while adult obesity rates are also continuing to rise – as is the incidence of diabetes in the UK. All these factors increase the risk that heart disease mortality rates could rise again in the near future.

Weissberg has warned that these factors “threaten to derail the decreasing trends in heart disease and death rates that we are now experiencing”.

Antibodies attacking flu virus, artwork
Whakaahua: SCIEPRO/Getty Images/Brand X

INFECTIOUS DISEASE

Kei hea tatou?
Defeating the scourge of infectious disease in the western world is generally attributed to the development of vaccine programmes and antibiotics, although improved sanitation and health education have also been key factors.

“In fact, death rates from tuberculosis, a pernicious killer, had begun to drop by the mid-19th century,” said Carsten Timmermann of Manchester University. “In 1838, there were around 4,000 deaths per million as a result of TB, but this had dropped to around 1,000 e 1900. Vaccines and antibiotics had nothing to do with that. He pono, it is not clear why the decline occurred at all. But it is also evident that programmes such as the BCG vaccine project had really stopped tuberculosis being a serious killer by the middle of the 20th century.”

aha teie nei?
In the west, most infectious diseases are now kept at bay. Heoi, the balance is an uneasy one. “In the 1960s, a US surgeon-general was alleged to have claimed that infectious diseases had been completely defeated,” said Jeremy Farrar, who is head of the UK Wellcome Trust.

“The story may be apocryphal but it certainly sums up attitudes at the time. Na, a couple of decades later, we had the arrival of HIV in the west and a very clear lesson about the ever-present danger of infectious diseases, e can spread very quickly from other parts of the world.”

I tua atu, the rise of antibiotic resistancea result, in part, of overusehas led to growing fears that one of the west’s key defences against infectious disease may be lost in the near future, unless pharmaceutical companies speed up the development of new versions.

What are the problems?
In an increasingly connected world, it’s more and more difficult to contain infectious diseases. Changes in weather patterns and increased migrations from areas affected by rising sea levels or spreading deserts will also intensify the risk of new diseases or new strains of existing conditions arriving in the west.

“In developing nations, we have replaced the problems of infectious disease with health issues such as diabetes and obesity,” said Farrar. “But in developing nations, they still have major problems with infectious diseasesmalaria, TB and HIV, hei tauira – but are also being affected by obesity and diabetes. Countries such as theseVietnam is a good exampleneed considerable help from global agencies such as the World Health Organisation. Heoi, these agencies are not getting the support they need from the west any more.”

guardian.co.uk © Guardian News & Media Limited 2010

Whakaputaina mā te Feed Guardian News mono hoki WordPress.

Tefito e pā ana