E rima Mars i ngā āhuatanga e ke to tatou māramatanga o te ao whero

Five Mars discoveries that transformed our understanding of the red planet

 

Powered e Guardian.co.ukTēnei tuhinga ui “E rima Mars i ngā āhuatanga e ke to tatou māramatanga o te ao whero” i tuhituhia e Alan Yuhas i New York, no te theguardian.com i runga i Rāpare 5 Whiringa 2015 21.15 UTC

Ki te he Rover trundling mo te oneone whero, he ruku waka ātea i roto i te kōhauhau me ngā kapa i mahi katoa a tawhio noa te whenua, Kua homai ake te string o nga mea ngaro Mars ki Nasa i roto i te tau whakamutunga. Teie te tahi o te tino'ilo o 2015.

Te wai wai i runga i Mars

Rapua i muri hoki tekau tau, taunakitanga o te wai wai i runga i Mars mooni puta i te ao i roto i te Hōngongoi, rere iho pākohu me crater taiepa i runga i te wa raumati. Kitea te kapa Nasa tai hydrated, he pū paowa hoki te wai wai, i ngā wāhi e wha huhulu iho te wahi stains pouri te whenua Martian.

E kore e NASA i mohio ki te puna o te rere faaheeraa briny, e whakatika ake ai i te huka raro aquifers ranei, whakatōtā ranei i roto o te kōhauhau. Kua kitea misioni Past tīwhiri o te wai, tae atu ki ngā whakaahua o te mea ka puta ki te riro awa iti a tae noa te wai ringihia iho nga pakohu, engari Rere te kitea raumati i rite te whakapumautia taunakitanga o te wai tuatahi tino pā ana ki te ora.

Kua puritia roa kairangahau e te wai wai ko te whakauru tuatahi mo te ora - mantra o Nasa i roto i te titauraa ko "te whai i te wai" - ko te pūtaiao inaianei fehangahangai he matawaenga mo e founga ki te tirotiro i te awa. E kore te mea horomata te Rover pākiki kua tūhuratia e Mars mō nga tau e toru, a i taea e te paru i te wāhi mākū ki ngā teretetiera e piri ki te waka ātea i roto i te hanganga. Ko te Rover taea e te tirotiro i te tawhiti, ki te taiaho e pai whanganga i te koputaputa, ranei te reira i taea e aituä tata ki te utu ake etahi paru.

He huru huia e hau i te ra

I Rāpare, Nasa kauwhautia te raupapa o ngā kitenga e pā ana ki te kōhauhau Areopaka e taea e te whakaoti i te mea ngaro o te mea i tupu ki Mars, e pirioni o tau ki muri ko te mākū, ao mahana ki te kōhauhau 100 wa nui. Ko maroke teie mahana Mars, frigid a pepe nei e te hihinga - he ao, kahore te mara kaha autō e karapoti te whenua me te tiaki i te reira i pakū i runga i te ra.

Ngā mai Maven waka ātea a Nasa, i tae Mars hinga whakamutunga ki te tūhura i tona huru angiangi, E te āwhina ki te whakaoti i taua mea ngaro. Kitea kaipūtaiao misioni e vero solar, e hau pūngao me te autō waho, huia atu korakora i te huru o Mars i te tere maere.

"Ka rite ki te tahae o te torutoru moni i te moni te rēhita i nga ra katoa, riro nui i runga i te wā i te mate,"Ka mea a Bruce Jakosky, Fiefanongo tumuaki o Maven. I vero Solar atu noa, me te kaha mua i roto i te aamu o te pūnaha solar, te tikanga kia kua i ngā i runga i te ra rara matua mo te wai, me te kōhauhau o Mars.

Ko te misioni whanganga ano te hanganga o te kōhauhau Areopaka mo te wa tuatahi mai i te misioni Viking 40 matahiti i ma'iri a'e, a ka kitea he nui ngaro o te puehu kare i runga ake i te ao. Fokotu'u nga kairangahau taea e te reira e te puehu interplanetary - te purapura rangi mahue i muri i te unahiroa me Asteroids kopikopiko i te pūnaha solar.

Roto Ancient

I roto i te Oketopa, Kitea Nasa kaipūtaiao taunakitanga o ngā roto e taea e kua roa ake ki te 10,000 tau - pea roa nui ora mo ki te whakawhanake i roto i te whenua repo o te awa pāpaku, me te hauaauru. Whakakitea Tātaritanga o te waipara pūtaiao e rere ana te wai, e mau ana te kirikiri me te one ki raro, ki te crater Gale ammonite. I roto i te pokapū o te Koinei tu he maunga, meake huaina Maunga Sharp, ano te haaputuputuraa o e toru-maile o paparanga parataiao.

Wai raro

I roto i te Paenga-whāwhā, te Rover te pākiki kitea taunakitanga o te wai wai i raro i te mata o Matawhero, me pāmahana papa'ihia i roto i te Koinei Gale i tika noa mo te tote wai. Ko te kitenga fokotu'u e te oneone Martian he haukū ki te wai e taea e noho whakawhetai wai ki te tote, konupūmā perchlorate, e pupuri ana te reira wai ki raro, ki e pā ana ki -70C.

Auroras

Kitea hoki kaipūtaiao Maven e hangaia e te hau solar te ōrite o rama raki puta noa swaths nui o Mars, i meinga e te te-pūngao tiketike Korakora whakaongaonga te huru makere e te papa autō. E nehenehe te taata e kite i te auroras Martian rite whero, tae puru, me te matomato i runga i te tūāwhiorangi kitea, engari e kore e Nasa i mohio he aha ai titiro nga rama rite, mai hapa ona torohe te taputapu ki te kite ia ratou.

Hoki fokotu'u te auroras e kurua ana te nuinga o Mars e hau solar, e ohaoha taunakitanga ki te whakaaro i whai wāhi ngā solar ki te mate o te kōhauhau katoa a tawhio noa te ao. Noho ētahi mara autō i roto i te wāhanga o te kirinuku marara huri noa i te ao, engari te aorangi kāore i te whakangungu rakau ao e kotahi te reira i.

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