Tiesa skuba ten: kodėl sąmokslas plisti greičiau nei kada nors anksčiau

The truth is rushing out there: why conspiracies spread faster than ever

nuo 9/11 Paryžiaus išpuolių, nuo Ebola Isis, visi didieji pasaulio įvykis pritraukia atitinkamą atsakomąjį pasakojimą iš "truthers", kai taip visaapimanti, kad jie perima žmonių gyvybių. Ar mūsų smegenys laidinis tikėti, kaip nauja knyga teigia,? Ir gal toks mąstymas iš tiesų būti naudingas?


Powered by Guardian.co.ukŠis straipsnis pavadinimu “Tiesa skuba ten: kodėl sąmokslas plisti greičiau nei kada nors anksčiau” buvo parašytas David Shariatmadari, The Guardian "šeštadienį 26 gruodžio 2015 10.00 UTC

"Prisimenu, skaityti apie Final Fantasy VII, filmas man buvo tikrai laukiu. Mano pradinė reakcija buvo nusivylęs, kad tai buvo dviejų metų toli -., Nes tada mes norime būti pagal karinės kontrolės "Tai buvo 2004, Matthew Elliott buvo giliai. Elliott, iš San Antonio, Teksasas, buvo pirmą kartą buvo atkreiptas į sąmokslo teorijas, kai jis buvo 19, į padarinius 9/11. "Atrodė, nesuvokiamas, kad mes galėtume būti užpulti,"Sako jis šiandien. Beieškodamas prasmės, kas nutiko, jis atėjo per pagarsėjęs "truther" judėjimas, iš mano dabartinis, kad kaltę dėl žiaurumų per JAV vyriausybės duris.

"Kaip dauguma sąmokslo teorijos yra išdėstytos, vienas dalykas visada veda į kitą, taip iš ten aš tapau įsitikinęs, kad valdančiosios grupės vadinama Naujoji pasaulio tvarka dirigavo viską. Tai visi sukelti karo ir visiškai pašalinti iš mūsų laisvių," jis sako. Po dešimtmečio, Elliott, dabar 34, yra "atsigauna" sąmokslo teoretikas, atsigręžęs nugarą dėl pasaulėžiūros, kuri visada postuluoja kai paslėptas, veikiantis nuo paprastų žmonių interesus galinga jėga. Pokytis atėjo palaipsniui, bet jis galvoja labai skirtingai dabar. "Jūs net negalite gauti daug iš 50 narėms susitarti dėl dalykų. Sėkmės įtikinamų europiečiai ir azijiečiai gauti laive. "

ELLIOTT reakcija į traumos 9/11 buvo toli nuo neįprasta. Išpuolių buvo tiek precedento, taip sukrečiantys, kad daugelis iš mūsų sunkiai prasmės jų. Ankstyvi ataskaitos buvo sumišęs ar prieštaringi: kaip rezultatas kai elgiamasi oficialią įvykių versiją su skepticizmu. A tie savo ruožtu dalis plumped paaiškinimo, kad būtų reikalaujama fakery ir koordinavimą masiškai.

Tai neturėtų stebinti: tai modelis, kuris yra kartojamas po kiekvieno pasaulio šokas, ir Paryžiaus išpuolių, ji vėl augina savo galvą. Per teroristų išpuolius prieš Prancūzijos sostinėje dieną, Dienoraščiai buvo paskelbtas teigdamas, kad jie buvo Vyriausybės darbai - vadinamasis "false flag" operacija. Pretenzijos poilsio idėja, kad Izidė yra sąmoningas kūrimas Vakarų vyriausybių. Visai neseniai, atsakomybė už Syed Farook šeimos advokatas, viena iš San Bernardino šauliai, Teršalai konspiracinis spekuliacijos kai jis sako,: "Yra daug motyvacijos šiuo metu pabrėžti ar sukurti įvykius, kurie bus sukelti pistoletas kontroliuoti ar išankstinio nusistatymo ar neapykantą musulmonų bendruomenei."

Visą parą aprėptis pasaulio įvykių reiškia, kad yra pastovus tiekimas krizės ir chaoso mums interpretuoti. Istorijos stygos yra traukiami paslėptų rankose yra mūsų pramogų kuokštelinių, nuo Spectre anketa Blofeld baroko sąmokslo Londonas spy, vienas iš labiausiai pripažintų britų dramų per metus, kuri išardyti įspūdingas pavyzdys, paranojikas stiliaus. Tai nereiškia, kad tikėjimas sąmokslo teorijų tampa vis labiau paplitęs, sako virusai Svamis, profesorius socialinės psichologijos Anglia Ruskin University: o tyrimai nebuvo padaryta dar, jis man sako, ten daug mažai tikėtinais įrodymais galima daryti išvadą, jog tikėjimas sąmokslų išliko gana stabilus pastarąjį pusę amžiaus ar taip. Kas pasikeite, tačiau, yra greitis, su kuria yra suformuota naujos teorijos. “It’s a symptom of a much more integrated world," jis sako. Interneto pagreitina viską aukštyn, leidžianti sąmokslo bendraminčių asmenis prisijungti ir suformuluoti savo idėjas. priešingai, it took months for theories about Pearl Harbor to develop.

Karen Douglas, another social psychologist, echoes this point. “People’s communication patterns have changed quite a lot over the last few years. It’s just so much easier for people to get access to conspiracy information even if they have a little seed of doubt about an official story. It’s very easy to go online and find other people who feel the same way as you.”

Is everyone prone to this kind of thinking, or is it the preserve of an extreme fringe? Douglas reckons it’s more common than most of us realise. “Recent research has shown that about half of Americans believe at least one conspiracy theory," ji sako. “You’re looking at average people; people you might come across on the street.”

That’s also the view of Rob Brotherton, kurio new book, Suspicious Minds, explores the traits that predispose us to belief in conspiracies. He cautions against sitting in judgment, since all of us have suspicious minds – and for good reason. Identifying patterns and being sensitive to possible threats is what has helped us survive in a world where nature often is out to get you. “Conspiracy theory books tend to come at it from the point of view of debunking them. I wanted to take a different approach, to sidestep the whole issue of whether the theories are true or false and come at it from the perspective of psychology," jis sako. “The intentionality bias, the proportionality bias, confirmation bias. We have these quirks built into our minds that can lead us to believe weird things without realising that’s why we believe them.”

Ben Whishaw London Spy
Ben Whishaw in London Spy, vienas iš labiausiai pripažintų britų dramų per metus, kuri išardyti įspūdingas pavyzdys, paranojikas stiliaus. Nuotrauka: BBC/WTTV

“Whenever anything ambiguous happens, we have this bias towards assuming that it was intended – that somebody planned it, that there was some kind of purpose or agency behind it, rather than thinking it was just an accident, or chaos, or an unintended consequence of something.” This intentionality bias, Brotherton says, can be detected from early childhood. “If you ask a young kid why somebody sneezed, the kid thinks that they did it on purpose, that the person must really enjoy sneezing. It’s only after about the age of four or five that we begin to learn that not everything that everybody does is intended. We’re able to override that automatic judgment. But research shows that it still stays with us even into adulthood.”

Pavyzdžiui, studies have shown that when people drink alcohol, they are more likely to interpret ambiguous actions as having been deliberate. “So if you’re at the pub and somebody jostles you and spills your drink, if it’s your first drink, you might write it off as an innocent mistake. But if you’re a few drinks in, then you’re more likely to think they did it on purpose, that it was an aggressive act.”

Like most personality traits, proneness to intentionality bias varies across the population. “Some people are more susceptible to it than others.” And, Brotherton explains, there is a small but reliable correlation between that susceptibility and belief in conspiracy theories.

External factors also play a part, žinoma. For Ryan, who asked that I omit his last name, the influence of a single charismatic individual was crucial. It was Johnny, a friend and bandmate, who showed him books and CDs about world government and “served as a guru of sorts”. At the same time as inducting him into the truther movement, “he was introducing me to music I’d never heard and really loved”. At the height of his involvement, Ryan says he believed a broad range of conspiracy theories, including “chemtrails” – the idea that the trails left by planes contain noxious chemicals intended to subdue or poison people; that Aids and Ebolos were introduced by governments to control population; that the moon landings were faked; that a substance extracted from apricots called laetrile was an effective cure for cancer, but had been banned by the FDA and dismissed as quackery to protect the interests of Big Pharma. “I strained my relationships with my family badly. It’s always the ones you love the most that you want to ‘wake up’. I ended up in hugely embarrassing debates and arguments," jis sako.

But beyond the anguish it caused for those close to him, were Ryan’s unorthodox beliefs harmful? Karen Douglas is wary of rubbishing all conspiracy theorising as dangerous. “Thinking in that way, it must have some positive consequences. If everybody went around just accepting what they were told by governments, officials, pharmaceutical companies, whoever, then we would be a bunch of sheep, really”. Iš kitos pusės, the effects of certain theories on behaviour can be damaging. Douglas’s own research [pdf download] has shown that exposure to the idea that the British government was involved in the death of Princess Diana reduced people’s intention to engage in politics. panašiai, subjects who read a text stating that climate change was a hoax by scientists seeking funding were less likely to want to take action to reduce their carbon footprint. Ir anti-vaccine conspiracy narratives make people less likely to vaccinate their children, a clear public health risk.

Should we try to stamp conspiracy theories out, tada? Part of Brotherton’s argument is that they’re a natural consequence of the way our brains have evolved. Ne tik tai, but trying to disprove them can backfire. “Any time you start trying to debunk conspiracy theories, for the people who really believe, that’s exactly what they would expect if the conspiracy were real," jis sako.

Swami sees things differently. “Experimental work that we’ve done shows that it’s possible to reduce conspiracist ideation.” How? Swami found that people who had been encouraged to think analytically during a verbal task were less likely to accept conspiracy theories afterwards. For him, this hints at an important potential role for education. “The best way is, at a societal level, to promote analytical thinking, to teach critical thinking skills.” But that’s not all. When people have faith in their representatives, understand what they are doing and trust that they are not corrupt, they are less likely to believe in coverups. That’s why political transparency ought to be bolstered wherever possible – and corporate transparency, per daug. “A lot of people have trouble accepting a big organisation’s or government’s narratives of an event, because they’re seen as untrustworthy, they’re seen as liars,” argues Swami.

Improved teaching and changes in political and business culture would undoubtedly help. But conspiracy theories can be rejected for personal reasons, per daug. Ryan’s view changed with loss of his “guru”.

“I kinda dropped out of contact with Johnny after he got married and had a baby," jis sako. “He was getting further and further into it, and I just couldn’t keep up with the mental gymnastics involved.” He started to look for alternative explanations – less exciting, but more plausible ones. “I looked at the people debating on the national level, for the presidency and such. No way these guys speaking in platitudes and generalisations could really be behind a global conspiracy to enslave or kill me. They weren’t doing a particularly good job of it either, considering how happy I was living my life.

“That was the epiphany, tikrai. I was free. I was happy. None of the doom and gloom predicted and promised ever came.” For Ryan, by then 27, the bizarre ride was over. A world that pitted him against the forces of evil had all the appeal of a spy drama. But real life was less like a story – and in some ways more depressing. What does he think are the forces that really shape things? “Most of what is wrong in the world nowadays – well, I would put it down to incompetence and greed. A lack of compassion.”

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