ວິທະຍາສາດໄດ້ມີການສ້າງເປັນ "Atlas ຂອງສະຫມອງທີ່"

Scientists Have Created an “Atlas of the Brain”

ການນໍາໃຊ້ຮູບພາບສະຫມອງ, ວິທະຍາສາດໄດ້ສ້າງແຜນທີ່ສະແດງວິທີການຄໍາແລະຄວາມຫມາຍຂອງເຂົາເຈົ້າແມ່ນເປັນຕົວແທນໃນທົ່ວພູມິພາກທີ່ແຕກຕ່າງກັນຂອງສະຫມອງ


Powered by Guardian.co.ukບົດ​ຄວາມ​ຫົວ​ຂໍ້​ນີ້ “neuroscientists ສ້າງ 'atlas' ສະແດງໃຫ້ເຫັນວິທີການຄໍາແມ່ນການຈັດຕັ້ງໃນສະຫມອງ” ລາຍ​ລັກ​ອັກ​ສອນ​ໂດຍ​ບັນ​ນາ​ທິ​ການ​ວິ​ທະ​ຍາ​ສາດ​ຕົວ​ຢ່າງ Ian, ສໍາລັບ theguardian.com ໃນວັນພຸດວັນທີ 27 ເມສາ 2016 17.00 UTC

ວິທະຍາສາດໄດ້ມີການສ້າງເປັນ "atlas ຂອງສະຫມອງ" ທີ່ສະແດງໃຫ້ເຫັນວິທີການຄວາມຫມາຍຂອງຄໍາສັບຕ່າງໆໄດ້ຖືກຈັດຢູ່ໃນທົ່ວທຸກພາກທີ່ແຕກຕ່າງກັນຂອງອະໄວຍະວະ.

ເຊັ່ນດຽວກັນກັບ quilt ສີໄດ້ວາງໄວ້ໃນໄລຍະ cortex ໄດ້, ການສະແດງ atlas ໃນ hues rainbow ວິທີການຄໍາບຸກຄົນແລະແນວຄວາມຄິດຂອງພວກເຂົາເຈົ້າຖ່າຍທອດສາມາດເປັນກຸ່ມຮ່ວມກັນໃນ clumps ຂອງເລື່ອງສີຂາວ.

"ເປົ້າຫມາຍຂອງພວກເຮົາແມ່ນການກໍ່ສ້າງ atlas ຍັກໃຫຍ່ທີ່ສະແດງໃຫ້ເຫັນວິທີການຫນຶ່ງລັກສະນະສະເພາະຂອງພາສາແມ່ນເປັນຕົວແທນຢູ່ໃນສະຫມອງ, ໃນກໍລະນີຄວາມຫມາຍນີ້, ຫຼືຄວາມຫມາຍຂອງຄໍາສັບຕ່າງໆ,"Jack Gallant ເວົ້າວ່າ, ເປັນ neuroscientist ຢູ່ວິທະຍາໄລແຄລິຟໍເນຍ, Berkeley.

ບໍ່ມີພາກພື້ນສະຫມອງດຽວຖືຫນຶ່ງໃນຄໍາສັບຫຼືແນວຄວາມຄິດ. A ຈຸດສະຫມອງດຽວທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງກັບຈໍານວນຂອງຄໍາສັບຕ່າງໆທີ່ກ່ຽວຂ້ອງ. ແລະແຕ່ລະຄົນຄໍາດຽວແສງເຖິງຈໍານວນຫຼາຍຈຸດສະຫມອງທີ່ແຕກຕ່າງກັນ. ພວກເຂົາເຈົ້າຮ່ວມກັນເຮັດຂຶ້ນເຄືອຂ່າຍທີ່ເປັນຕົວແທນຄວາມຫມາຍຂອງແຕ່ລະຄໍາທີ່ພວກເຮົາໃຊ້: ຊີວິດແລະຄວາມຮັກ; ການເສຍຊີວິດແລະພາສີອາກອນ; ຟັງ, Florida ແລະ bra. ທັງຫມົດແສງເຖິງເຄືອຂ່າຍຂອງເຂົາເຈົ້າເອງ.

ວິທະຍາສາດໄດ້ສ້າງຕັ້ງການສະແດງໃຫ້ເຫັນແຜນທີ່ແບບໂຕ້ຕອບທີ່ສະຫມອງຕອບສະຫນອງກັບໄດ້ຍິນຄໍາເວົ້າທີ່ແຕກຕ່າງກັນ.

ອະທິບາຍເປັນ "ການທ່ອງທ່ຽວ de ຜົນບັງຄັບໃຊ້" ໂດຍນັກຄົ້ນຄວ້າຜູ້ທີ່ບໍ່ໄດ້ມີສ່ວນຮ່ວມໃນການສຶກສາ, the atlas demonstrates how modern imaging can transform our knowledge of how the brain performs some of its most important tasks. With further advances, the technology could have a profound impact on medicine and other fields.

“It is possible that this approach could be used to decode information about what words a person is hearing, reading, or possibly even thinking,” said Alexander Huth, the first author on the study. One potential use would be a language decoder that could allow people silenced by motor neurone disease or locked-in syndrome to speak through a computer.

To create the atlas, the scientists recorded people’s brain activity while they listened to stories read out on The Moth Radio Hour, a US radio show. They then matched the transcripts of the stories with the brain activity data to show how groups of related words triggered neural responses in 50,000 ການ 80,000 pea-sized spots all over the cerebral cortex.

Huth used stories from The Moth Radio Hour because they are short and compelling. The more enthralling the stories, the more confident the scientists could be that the people being scanned were focusing on the words and not drifting off. Seven people listened to two hours of stories each. Per person, that amounted to hearing roughly 25,000 ຄໍາສັບຕ່າງໆ- ແລະ​ຫຼາຍ​ກ​່​ວາ 3,000 different wordsas they lay in the scanner.

The atlas shows how words and related terms exercise the same regions of the brain. ສໍາ​ລັບ​ຕົວ​ຢ່າງ, on the left-hand side of the brain, above the ear, is one of the tiny regions that represents the word “victim”. The same region responds to “killed”, “convicted”, “murdered” and “confessed”. On the brain’s right-hand side, near the top of the head, is one of the brain spots activated by family terms: “wife”, “husband”, “children”, “parents”.

Each word is represented by more than one spot because words tend to have several meanings. One part of the brain, ສໍາ​ລັບ​ການ​ຍົກ​ຕົວ​ຢ່າງ, reliably responds to the word “top”, along with other words that describe clothing. But the word “top” activates many other regions. One of them responds to numbers and measurements, another to buildings and places. The scientists have created an interactive website where the public can explore the brain atlas.

Strikingly, the brain atlases were similar for all the participants, suggesting that their brains organised the meanings of words in the same way. The scientists only scanned five men and two women, ຢ່າງ​ໃດ​ກໍ​ຕາມ. All are native English speakers, and two are authors of the study published in ລັກສະນະ. It is highly possible that people from different backgrounds and cultures will have different semantic brain atlases.

Armed with the atlas, researchers can now piece together the brain networks that represent wildly different concepts, from numbers to murder and religion. “The idea of murder is represented a lot in the brain,” Gallant said.

Using the same haul of data, the group has begun work on new atlases that show how the brain holds information on other aspects of language, from phonemes to syntax. A brain atlas for narrative structure has so far proved elusive, ຢ່າງ​ໃດ​ກໍ​ຕາມ. “Every time we come up with a set of narrative features, we get told they aren’t the right set of narrative features,” said Gallant.

Uri Hasson, a neuroscientist at Princeton University, praised the work. Unlike many studies that looked at brain activity when an isolated word or sentence was spoken, Gallant’s team had shed light on how the brain worked in a real-world scenario, ເຂົາ​ເວົ້າ​ວ່າ. The next step, ເຂົາ​ເວົ້າ​ວ່າ, was to create a more comprehensive and precise semantic brain atlas. ໃນ​ທີ່​ສຸດ, Hasson believes it will be possible to reconstruct the words a person is thinking from their brain activity. The ethical implications are enormous. One more benign use would see brain activity used to assess whether political messages have been effectively communicated to the public. “There are so many implications, and we are barely touching the surface,"ເຂົາ​ເວົ້າ​ວ່າ.

Lorraine Tyler, a cognitive neuroscientist and head of the Centre for Speech, Language and the Brain at Cambridge University said the research was a “tour de force in its scope and methods”. But the brain atlas in its current form does not capture fine differences in word meanings. Take the word “table”. It can be a member of many different groups, says Tyler. “It can be something to eat off, things made of wood, things that are heavy, things having four legs, non-animate objects, ແລະ​ອື່ນໆ. This kind of detailed semantic information that enables words to be used flexibly is lost in the analysis,"ນາງ​ເວົ້າ​ວ່າ. “While this research is path-breaking in its scope, there is still a lot to learn about how semantics is represented in the brain.”

guardian.co.uk ©​ຜູ້​ປົກ​ຄອງ News & Media Limited 2010

ບົດ​ຄວາມ​ທີ່​ກ່ຽວ​ຂ້ອງ