អត្ថបទមានចំណងជើងថានេះ “ពីរថយន្តបើកបរទៅ Jetpack: ជួបឆ្លងកាត់ច្នៃប្រឌិតបច្ចេកវិទ្យា reshaping” ត្រូវបានសរសេរដោយលោក Andy Meek, សម្រាប់ theguardian.com នៅថ្ងៃសៅរ៍ទី 14 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2015 14.13 UTC
ផលិតផលស្មាតហ្វូយន្តហោះរបស់ក្រុមហ៊ុនលោកម៉ាទីនមានមូលដ្ឋាននៅញូវែលសេឡង់គឺជាម៉ាស៊ីនដែលហោះព្រមព្រៀងគ្នា: a jetpack that might seem like a prop from a sci-fi movie, were it not for the fact that it’s well on the road to commercialization.
នៅក្នុងខែតុលា, New Zealand’s civil aviation authority cleared the company’s Prototype 12 model jetpack for manned flights. The fan-propelled jetpack, when shown in June at the Paris Air Show, could soar almost 1,000 meters and fly up to half an hour. The company’s jetpacks are expected to become commercially available sometime in the second half of 2016.
ការអភិវឌ្ឍ Jetpack នេះគឺជាឧទាហរណ៍មួយនៃគំនិតធំនិងការភ្នាល់ធំត្រូវបានធ្វើឡើងនៅទូទាំងសហគ្រាសដែលផ្តោតលើការដឹកជញ្ជូន, ដែលជាកន្លែងដែលក្រុមហ៊ុនដូចលោក Martin យន្តហោះកំពុងតែប្រជែងគ្នាគែមឆ្ងាយពីអ្វីដែលជាការអាចធ្វើទៅបាន. យើងបានរស់នៅលើជំរាលនៃពេលវេលាមួយនៅពេលដែលរថយន្ដនឹងត្រូវបាន "ស្វយ័តយ៉ាងពេញលេញនៅក្នុងរយៈពេលវែង», នេះបើយោងតាមក្រុមហ៊ុន Tesla លោក Elon Musk. នៅក្នុងការហៅមួយដែលមានភាគទុនិករថយន្តអគ្គិសនីនៅក្នុងខែនេះ, គាត់បានផ្ដល់ឱ្យវា 15 ទៅ 20 ប៉ុន្មានឆ្នាំ.
មានបានើននៃសហគ្រិនដឹកជញ្ជូនផ្សេងទៀតមានជាមួយនឹងផែនការស្រមើលស្រមៃដូចគ្នានេះដែររបស់ពួកគេផ្ទាល់, from spaceships that make suborbital flights ទៅ aircrafts that take off and land vertically.
The Guardian reached out to a few of these innovators to get a sense of where the future of transportation is headed. We asked how they’re addressing the inherent technical challenges and why they decided to get into this space in the first place. What we found is strong optimism for a near future where strapping on a jetpack could be as normal as getting behind the wheel.
លោកម៉ាទីនយន្តហោះ នាយកប្រតិបត្តិក្រុមហ៊ុនលោកពេត្រុស Coker បានដឹងថាអាជីវកម្មរបស់គាត់អាចនឹងលេចឡើងនឹងត្រូវសាងសង់នៅលើទស្សនៈវិស័យមិនគួរឱ្យជឿអស្ចារ្យ.
"វាគឺជាកូនប្រុសរបស់ខ្ញុំដែលបានបញ្ចុះបញ្ចូលខ្ញុំឱ្យចូលរួមក្នុងក្រុមហ៊ុននេះ,"Coker បាននិយាយថា:, ទោះបីជាមានបញ្ហាប្រឈម. "យើងបានស្ថិតនៅលើថ្ងៃឈប់សម្រាក, និងកូនប្រុសរបស់ខ្ញុំ, ដែលធ្វើការជាមួយក្រុមហ៊ុនវិនិយោគរបស់ហាងនៅទីក្រុងឡុង, ពេញច្បាប់បានចង្អុលបង្ហាញថា: ‘Why wouldn’t you want to be involved in the biggest change in aviation in the last century?' "
In a hurry to get their jetpacks to market, 2015 has been something of a defining year for the company, which has in recent months been locking up agreements, partnerships and showing off the design to potential customers. It has expanded to 53 people across 13 nationalities and is listed on the Hong Kong stock exchange.
Describing the future of jetpacks, Coker envisions a “highway in the sky” or a “fourth dimension of transport”, ដែលជាកន្លែងដែលមនុស្សជាមធ្យមឡើងយ៉ាងឆាប់រហ័សអាចធ្វើដំណើរពីមួយចំណុចទៅមួយទៀត.
«យើងដឹងថាឧបករណ៍ប្រើប្រាស់នៅជុំវិញអ្វីមួយដូចនេះគឺច្រើនជាងការដែលវាត្រូវបានគេគ្រាន់តែជាការបានយ៉ាងឆាប់រហ័សជា Jetpack ផ្ទាល់ខ្លួន,"បានឱ្យដឹងថា Coker, ជាអតីតនាយកប្រតិបត្តិក្រុមហ៊ុន Lockheed Martin. "យើងបានមើលឃើញពីឱកាសក្នុងវិស័យពាណិជ្ជកម្មមួយ - ប្រេងនិងឧស្ម័ន, ការរុករករ៉ែនិងការធ្វើកសិកម្ម»។
គំនិតនៃការហោះហើរមួយនេះ Jetpack អាចស្តាប់ទៅដូចជាការលក់មានការលំបាកដល់វិនិយោគិនគួរឱ្យសង្ស័យនិងប្រហែលជាស្ពានមួយផងដែរមកដល់ដៃគូនិងអតិថិជន. But Coker says just seeing the thing can help clinch a sale. When his company shows a picture or video of the concept or presents a prototype in action, Coker says it “immediately triggers the dream I had when I was a kid”. In some ways, គាត់និយាយ, getting that buy-in is the easy part.
It’s certainly less complicated than surmounting the inherent technical challenges that come with building a system that includes a gas engine and two fans that provide the needed lift.
«នៅពេលដែលអ្នកទទួលយកមនុស្សតាមរយៈទស្សនវិជ្ជានៃតើវាធ្វើប្រតិបត្តិការ - ដូចជាការបង្កើតថ្មីដែលល្អទាំងអស់, វាជាការចែកចាយនៅមានភាពស្មុគស្មាញដែលមើលទៅសាមញ្ញ - ពួកគេបានទទួលបានវា,"Coker បាននិយាយថា. «ពួកគេទទួលបានឧបករណ៍ប្រើប្រាស់របស់វា, ហើយរាល់ពេលដែលយើងចូលទៅធ្វើបទបង្ហាញវានៅកន្លែងណាមួយ, នរណាម្នាក់ដែលបានមកឡើងជាមួយនឹងវិធីផ្សេងគ្នាមួយចំនួនដើម្បីប្រើវា»។
Transportation innovations like the jetpacks are taking on a variety of other forms – some incremental, some groundbreaking.
Driverless car technology is one of the hottest sectors at the moment, with manufacturers from Ford to Mercedes-Benz making driverless tech plays. Sensors and assistive capabilities were also among the themes of the Intelligent Transportation Society of America’s Rethinking Transportation for the Next 30 Years summit in October in Washington DC.
ការជំរុញឆ្ពោះទៅរកស្វ័យភាពនេះគឺជាបេះដូងនៃរបកគំឃើញការដឹកជញ្ជូនជាច្រើនបាននាពេលបច្ចុប្បន្ន. នៅក្នុងលិខិតរបស់ម្ចាស់ភាគហ៊ុននៅត្រីមាសទីបីក្រុមហ៊ុន Tesla បានចេញផ្សាយ 3 ខែវិច្ឆិកា, ក្រុមហ៊ុននេះបានសរសេរថា, "អតិថិជនរបស់យើងបានបើកឡានរថយន្តរបស់ពួកគេស្ទើរតែ 250 ម៉ាយល៍ក្នុងត្រីមាសនេះ, សម្រាប់ការសរុបចំនួនជិត 1.5bn ម៉ាយទៅកាលបរិច្ឆេទមួយ។ "រថយន្ត Tesla, លិខិតនោះទៅលើ, ត្រូវសម្លឹងឆ្ពោះទៅមុខថ្ងៃ "នៅពេលដែលយើងអាចប្រាប់អ្នកថាតើរហូតមកដល់រថយន្តរបស់យើងបានជំរុញឱ្យអតិថិជនរបស់យើង".
បែបនេះនាពេលអនាគតគឺជាការសន្និដ្ឋានទុកជាមុនទៅឱ្យវិស្វករនិងអ្នករចនាម៉ូដផ្នែកឧស្សាហកម្មរបស់ប្រទេសអ៊ីតាលី Tommaso Gecchelin. He’s sketched out a modular concept he’s calling បន្ទាប់ that features what are essentially electric pods that can connect and disconnect to other pods as needed, like some futuristic train that can start small and grow to expand, accordion-style.
“Based on our technology and user needs trends analysis … it’s very likely that in the future we will see a revolutionary segmentation of the transportation market,” Gecchelin says. “On one side, human-driven cars will become like horses with the advent of motorized cars. So the sports car will become prominent, while city cars will become less desired, giving more space to intelligent transportation systems that will give a more useful and fulfilling … travel and commuting experience.”
He envisions his Next concept as more than just a commuter model. It could double as a service delivery system, with businesses renting or owning pods of their own and sending them loaded with goods to a customer’s home.
Gecchelin says he started thinking about a solution oriented around “work, leisure and on-demand services [rather than] traffic optimization”. នៅពេលនេះ, he’s looking for funding to allow the manufacture of a first fleet to demonstrate the concept in the real world. He’s currently talks with a few German cities about potential partnerships.
“This is what robotics and self driving technologies will lead to," គាត់និយាយ. “Intelligence and self driving unlock the possibility for vehicles to collaborate exactly like it happens with Next.”
Other than technical hurdles, one of the biggest obstacles standing in the way of such innovations is the status quo. Almost 17m new vehicles will be sold and hit the roadways in the US this year – vehicles that won’t soon be abandoned for a radical new way of getting from one point to the next.
In an attempt to innovate in harmony with the status quo, Paul Elio frames the utility of his company’s flagship vehicle to something like the iPad. In the same way the tablet hasn’t proven to be a PC killer but instead complements users’ existing range of devices, Elio sees his company’s vehicle as something like the iPad of a customer’s garage. Phoenix-based Elio Motors is taking orders now for its three-wheeled, motorcycle-like vehicle that gets 84 miles to the gallon and which it plans to release next year with an affordable $6,800 price tag.
“I think something like this has to happen,” says Elio, whose company already has more than 47,000 reservations for its vehicle. “I lived in New York City for about a year and a half, and I loved the subway system there. When you have that size population, mass transit works.
“For the rest of the country, we obviously either need to demolish all the suburbs and create big population centers or figure out a more efficient way to get from the suburbs to the downtowns where we work.”
Elio’s prototype product is technically classified as a motorcycle, but it comes with amenities like power windows, air conditioning, air bags and power lock doors, all in an enclosed body. The vehicles will be produced by Elio in Shreveport, Louisiana, at a former General Motors production facility.
“It’s got to be low-cost and high-mileage – it’s got to be both of those to work," គាត់និយាយ. “This is an ‘and’ choice, not an ‘or’ choice. So the concept is you buy the big vehicle for the reason you bought it, and you have an Elio too. អ្នកបើកបរ Elio ដើម្បីធ្វើការ, ហើយកាលពីថ្ងៃសៅរ៍ដែលអ្នកបានយកចេញពីរថយន្ត SUV របស់អ្នក "។
Elio និយាយថាលោកបានសម្រេចចិត្តបើកក្រុមហ៊ុនរបស់លោកនិងការកសាងរថយន្តផ្ទាល់ខ្លួនតែមួយគត់របស់ខ្លួនបន្ទាប់ពីរស់នៅតាមរយៈការឆក់សេដ្ឋកិច្ចនៃ 2008 - នៅក្នុងការបន្ថែមទៅនឹងជំនឿរបស់លោកថារថយន្តជំនួញហាងលក់ដែលមានមូលដ្ឋានគឺជាការមួយនៃ "gamesmanship" និងសេដ្ឋកិច្ចដែលមិននៅក្នុងការពេញចិត្តរបស់បុគ្គល. រឿងមួយដែលគាត់បានរៀនបានយ៉ាងឆាប់រហ័សតាមដែលលោកបានកំណត់អំពីការបើកដំណើរការ Elio Motors បានគឺថារឿងមួយចំនួនមានដូចជាការ fraught ជាមួយនឹងការលំបាកសម្រាប់សហគ្រិនជាព្យាយាមបើកក្រុមហ៊ុនរថយន្តថ្មីមួយ.
“There are more barriers to entry in this space than anything else I’m aware of,” Elio says. “If you take Tesla out of the discussion, the last time somebody created a successful car company in America that’s still running was Walter P Chrysler in 1925.”
Back during the recession, when “the price of oil was going through the roof”, Elio says he became “pissed off seeing the wealth pouring out of this country”.
"ខ្ញុំបាននិយាយថា, I want to build a $5,000 car that gets 65 miles per gallon,” he recalls. “I had no data to back that up. We started working the problem. I still think a $5,000 car would have been a sexy number. But as the architecture started developing and we started meeting with suppliers and getting pricing, we realized this couldn’t have a lot of the features that people would expect.”
He believes the auto retail business needs to change to because dealers aren’t transparent with car costs and financing.
“I think one of the biggest problems is the business model is broken,” says Elio, who says he’s dreamed about owning a car company with his name on it since he was a young boy. “The purchase of a car is such an enormous game, which is why we have the $6,800 figure. If you know what you want and there’s no financing issue, it shouldn’t take you five hours to buy a vehicle.”
The year after Elio started his company, Denver-based David Brody was setting off down his own path. His startup, XTI Aircraft, has developed a concept for a six-seat business jet that flies like a normal passenger jet, but with a twist – it also takes off and lands vertically.
The company’s TriFan 600 jet uses three ducted fans for the vertical liftoff. Seconds after takeoff, two wing fans r otate forward to shift to horizontal flight. A fan mounted to the fuselage closes. When it comes time to land, the process plays out in reverse.
XTI បានអះអាងថាយន្តហោះនេះនឹងក្លាយជាជួរវែងបញ្ឈរ-ហោះយន្តហោះពាណិជ្ជកម្មលើកដំបូង. ក្រុមហ៊ុនផ្សេងទៀតកំពុងអភិវឌ្ឍបច្ចេកវិទ្យាបញ្ឈរ-ហោះ. នៅក្នុងខែមិថុនា, ក្រុមហ៊ុន Boeing បានបង្ហាញ ជាការហោះជិតបញ្ឈរប្រភេទយន្តហោះមួយ.
ដូច្នេះហើយលោកបានទទួលផ្កាភ្លើងនៃការបំផុសគំនិតអំពីការមួយទសវត្សរ៍មុនពេលដែលកូនប្រុសរបស់គាត់គឺ 10 អាយុប៉ុន្មានឆ្នាំហើយបាននាំយកទៅផ្ទះវិញបញ្ហានៃការជាមួយទស្សនាវដ្តី Time. គាត់នឹកចាំថាវាបានរួមបញ្ចូលអត្ថបទមួយអំពីសហគ្រិនព្យាយាមអភិវឌ្ឍយន្តហោះខ្នាតតូចដែលអាចយកចេញនិងចុះចតបញ្ឈរ.
"នោះបានទទួលខ្ញុំគិត,«ដូច្នេះហើយលោកបាននិយាយថា:. “If you look at what’s happened over the last several years in terms of advances in materials: we have lighter materials and have significant advances in jet engines. This jet has two turboshaft engines, plus advancements in computer technology have allowed for much more controllability and stability of the aircraft as well as collision avoidance. Some of the driverless car technology will probably play a role in the aircraft of the future.”
Brody believes that the future of the moderate commercial aircraft will be in vertical takeoff and landing. The technology would eliminate the cost of building and maintaining airports with long runways. It also could make flying even more accessible by creating air taxi services that pick you up not far from your home if not at your front door.
The ultimate frontier for a transportation entrepreneur, ជាការពិតណាស់, is out of this world. California-based XCOR Aerospace has started selling tickets for flights on its Lynx series of suborbital vehicles, which will take passengers and payloads on a space trip up to 330,000 feet that lasts less than an hour.
Passengers will essentially be the co-pilot on the trip – the only other passenger on the voyage besides the pilot. ដូចជា, they’ll be given a “call sign” and will be able to view space through the Lynx cockpit canopy that affords an expansive view of space.
The vehicle is powered by reusable rocket engines that run on kerosene and liquid oxygen.
“At the core of what we’ve developed at XCOR is a fully reusable rocket engine,” says board member Michiel Mol. “That may not seem spectacular, but it actually is. Every other rocket out there is one-time use only. We have what we call instant reusability. Our engine can fly, touch down and go on.”
ដូចជា, the Lynx vessel can, គាត់និយាយ, take passengers essentially to the border of space. XCOR envisions starting test flights sometime next summer and putting them into commercial use six to 12 months after that, with commercial flights starting possibly in 2017.
The company has sold a few hundred tickets already, mostly to consumers who have a passion for space. (And who have money to spend: tickets are $100,000 per flight.)
“We see every astronaut who’s been to space has come back having had a life-changing experience,” Mol says. “Once you’re out there in the blackness of space, looking at this small blue planet with a bright green glow and a tiny layer of atmosphere around it, it looks so vulnerable from the outside. It makes you an ambassador for Earth itself.”
One of the commonalities that becomes apparent when talking to entrepreneurs like these is how they regard their ambitions as inevitabilities.
All of them – and no doubt others in the transportation space – view the status quo when it comes to the way we get from here to there today as untenable, that something has to change – and that jetpacks and suborbital vessels are far less of a risky bet than doing nothing or making small tweaks to existing concepts.
Mol says the future of transportation also involves ideas and designs we likely can’t even conceive of today, because the needs of tomorrowwill be so extraordinary.
“I think mankind is always trying to find its boundaries and go farther,"គាត់បាននិយាយថា:. «ខ្ញុំគិតថានៅពេលអនាគតឆ្ងាយនោះយើងនឹងត្រូវបានរស់នៅលើភពជាច្រើនដូចជាប្រភេទសត្វមួយ. ខ្ញុំជឿពីនោះ, បាទ. ប្រហែលជាមិននៅក្នុងជីវិតរបស់យើង, ទោះបី "។
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