នៃ 69 ជនរងគ្រោះជ្រុលកាលពីឆ្នាំមុនមានមនុស្សស្លាប់, 68% បានយកការឈឺចាប់សំយោគនេះ, ដែលក្រុមកាតែលម៉ិកស៊ិកបានរៀនធ្វើនិងរត់ពន្ធទៅតាមផ្លូវរដ្ឋ. ថ្នាំនេះ "គឺជាអ្វីដែលត្រូវបានសំលាប់ពលរដ្ឋរបស់យើង,"ប្រធានប៉ូលីសបាននិយាយថាក្រុម Manchester
អត្ថបទមានចំណងជើងថានេះ “Fentanyl: ថ្នាំ 50 ដងច្រើនជាងការបំផ្លិចបំផ្លាញខ្លាំងហេរ៉ូអ៊ីនរដ្ឋ New Hampshire” ត្រូវបានសរសេរដោយលោកស្រី Susan Zalkind នៅក្នុងក្រុម Manchester, រដ្ឋ New Hampshire, សម្រាប់ theguardian.com នៅថ្ងៃទី 4 ខែកុម្ភៈកាលពីថ្ងៃព្រហស្បតិ៍ 2016 12.30 UTC
ការហៅមន្រ្តីលោក Shaun ដំបូងជ្រុលមកនៅក្នុង McKennedy នៅ 6.39pm. លោកបានប្រែស៊ីរ៉ែននៅលើនិងប្រញាប់ប្រញាលទៅឱ្យ 245 តាមផ្លូវ Laurel, អគារផ្ទះល្វែងកម្ពស់មធ្យម. វាមានរទេះទារកត្រូវគេបោះបង់នៅក្នុង yard ខាងមុខនេះ. បុរសម្នាក់ពាក់អាវកូនក្រមុំរបស់ Chucky peeps ចេញពីមាត់ទ្វារក្រុមអាវរបស់លោកជា McKennedy មួយ, 24, ប្រញាប់ប្រញាលជាន់លើ.
បុរសមួយចំនួនមកពីនាយកដ្ឋានពន្លត់អគ្គិភ័យក្នុងតំបន់និងនាយកដ្ឋានអឺអឹមតេមានរួចទៅហើយនៅទីនោះ, ហោះហើរនៅជុំវិញរាងកាយហាក់ដូចជាគ្មានជីវិតរបស់មនុស្ស 31 ឆ្នាំម្នាក់នៅជាន់បន្ទប់ទទួលភ្ញៀវនៅក្នុងអាវយឺតសើមត្រាំនិងខោខូវប៊. វាជាស្ថានភាព McKennedy មួយ, 24, បានឆ្លងកាត់រាប់សិបដងចាប់តាំងពីលោកបានចូលរួមកម្លាំងចុងក្រោយខែកក្កដា.
"លោក Larry! លោក Larry! ស្នាក់នៅជាមួយយើង!"yells ចាស្ទីន Chase, ក្រុមបិសាចក្រហម Manchester អឺអឹមតេជាពេទ្យទាហាន. លោកបានបញ្ចូល naloxone, ថ្នាំដែលបានប្តូរពីផលប៉ះពាល់នៃអូផ្ចូអ៊ីតនេះ, ច្រមុះរបស់ Larry.
រាងកាយរបស់គាត់អង្រួនហើយភ្នែករបស់គាត់លេចឡើងបើកចំហ. "អ្វីដែលជាការកើនឡើង?"គាត់បានសួរ, ដោយមិនព្រិចភ្នែក.
លោក Larry យល់ស្របដើម្បីចូលទៅកាន់បន្ទប់សង្គ្រោះបន្ទាន់នៅមន្ទីរពេទ្យលោកអ៊ីលៀត, ប៉ុន្តែវានឹងជាច្រើនសប្តាហ៍មុនពេលលទ្ធផលការធ្វើតេស្តកំណត់អ្វីដែលនាំឱ្យមានការជ្រុលរបស់គាត់. នេះគឺជាលើកដំបូងដែលគាត់បានធ្វើនោះ, គាត់បានប្រាប់ McKennedy ក្រោយមកនៅយប់នោះ. ជាធម្មតាលោកបានបញ្ចូលរវាងពីរនិងបីក្រាមហេរ៉ូអ៊ីនមួយថ្ងៃ; that evening he only took .2 grams, or a “pencil”. He’s not sure if he overdosed because he lost his tolerance – he says he’s been clean for just over two months – or if it was laced with fentanyl.
According to the Drug Enforcement Administration, fentanyl is a synthetic opioid 100 times more powerful than morphine, និង 30-50 times more powerful than heroin.
“Fentanyl is what is killing our citizens,” said Manchester chief of police Nick Willard in testimony before Congress last week.
នៅ 2013, the city of Manchester had 14 fatal overdoses, 7% of which involved victims with fentanyl in their system, according to Willard. នៅ 2015, 69 people fatally overdosed, 68% of whom had taken fentanyl.
The state statistics are no more cheery. Officials at the office of the chief medical examiner in New Hampshire say they have yet to receive testing results from 36 suspected overdoses, but they’ve counted 399 fatal overdose victims so far, more than two thirds of whom died with fentanyl in their system.
“It’s not like Mario Batali,” said Willard from his office in Manchester, comparing heroin dealers cutting their supply with the famed chief. “These guys are just throwing it in a mixer. You could get a bag that’s perfect and no one is going to die from it. You could also get a bag [that’s] straight fentanyl and that would kill you.”
Willard said that during a recent raid in Manchester, he found a dealer mixing fentanyl with whey protein. In another sting that led to a seizure in Lawrence, ម៉ាសាឈូសេត, the dealer was allegedly mixing heroin and fentanyl in a kitchen blender.
For the most part, said Willard, the story of opiate use in Manchester follows the same patterns as the rest of the country. The crisis was ushered in by the rise of prescription painkillers like OxyContin. Addicts looking for a cheaper high frequently turned to the more dangerous, yet significantly cheaper, heroin.
The turning point, គាត់និយាយ, happened sometime after 2010, when Purdue Farmer altered the medication to make it more difficult to tamper with and get high. Suppliers in Mexico were quick to keep up with the burgeoning market, and addicts in Manchester, which sits near Interstate 93, Route 3, Route 81, and Route 9, had no problem tapping into the supply.
To make matters worse for Manchester, DEA agent Tim Desmond says intelligence indicates that Mexican cartels, specifically El Chapo’s Sinaloa cartel, have increased poppy production 50% since last year and have been targeting the north-east.
Fentanyl was first developed in the 1960s as a general anesthetic, and it is still regularly administered by doctors, usually in the form of lozenges and patches, frequently for cancer patients.
Addicts have found ways to abuse the prescription forms of the drug, by sucking on the patches, ឧទាហរណ៍. But more recently, Mexican cartels have learned how to make their own fentanyl by importing the necessary chemicals from China, then smuggling the product across the border and on to the interstate highway system, said Desmond.
The United States has had fentanyl problems before. Between 2005 និង 2007, ច្រើនជាង 1,000 people died from the drug, mostly in the midwest. According to a press release from the DEA, all of those deaths could be traced to a single lab in Mexico. Once the DEA shut down the lab, the fentanyl epidemic stopped too.
This time around, the DEA has not yet targeted a single lab in Mexico responsible for the epidemic in New England, said Desmond. ជំនួស, federal agents and local police are targeting area dealers. “Sometimes we have to start at the bottom of the food chain in order to go up the ladder,"គាត់បាននិយាយថា:.
In Manchester, Willard is working to exterminate the epidemic from the ground up. When he became chief in the summer of last year, he turned over his drug unit, and ordered detectives to arrest dealers quickly to get them off the street, rather than wait to build a more thorough case or work up the supply line.
He’s also worked to build a state and federal task force, called Granite Hammer, which began last September; so far, គាត់និយាយ, the unit has made 77 arrests. He has also called for an increase in state support for recovery clinics.
McKennedy responded to two more overdose calls that night. First was a man in his late 20s named Mark, who passed out in a laundromat with one needle in his arm and one full, and ready to go. Mark was less willing to accompany the EMTs to the hospital.
“Do you want to die?” asked Chase.
“Who the fuck would want to live in this life?” Mark’s statement, said Chase, is suicidal ideation, which means that the EMTs are required to take him to the hospital anyways. At the hospital, Mark asked McKennedy for his heroin back.
The next call was for a woman in her early 30s. Dawn Marie overdosed at a friend’s apartment. It took two doses of naloxone to revive her. Her friend has two children. They practiced spelling out the alphabet on a coloring book in a room next door.
Other officers responded to a fourth overdose call while McKennedy helped EMTs attend to an addict who tried to take his own life with a kitchen knife. He recognized McKennedy from a previous overdose. “Another day in paradise,” he said as the officer walked through the door.
In a moment of calm, McKennedy assisted Officer Mark Aquino with a traffic stop. Aquino is a drug recognition expert. It’s getting more difficult to recognize addicts, លោកថ្លែងថា:. Heroin is easy to detect, the user’s pupils get small and pin-like. “Fentanyl doesn’t restrict pupils,"គាត់បាននិយាយថា:. “They nod instead,"លោកបានពន្យល់, dropping his chin to his chest.
នៅ 10.30, McKennedy returned to the department to fill out paperwork accounting for the calls. Another “consistent” shift in Manchester, he concluded. “Nothing out of the ordinary.”
guardian.co.uk ©អាណាព្យាបាលព័ត៌មាន & ប្រព័ន្ធផ្សព្វផ្សាយលីមីតធីត 2010