真実はそこに急いでいます: なぜ陰謀がこれまで以上に迅速に広がります

The truth is rushing out there: why conspiracies spread faster than ever

差出人 9/11 パリの攻撃に, エボラからイシスへ, すべての主要なグローバルイベントは、「truthers」から対応するカウンタ - 物語を魅了します, いくつかのように、彼らは人々の生活を引き継ぐことすべてを包括. 私たちの脳は信じて配線されています, 新しい本が主張するように? そして、このような有益なことが実際に考えることができ?


Guardian.co.ukによって供給というタイトルのこの記事 “真実はそこに急いでいます: なぜ陰謀がこれまで以上に迅速に広がります” デビッド・シャリアトマダリによって書かれました, ガーディアン土曜日の12月26日のために 2015 10.00 UTC

「私はファイナルファンタジーVIIについて読んで覚えています, 私は本当に楽しみにしていた映画. 私の最初の反応は、それが2年間離れていたことは終わった - 。それまでに、我々は軍事管理下にあると思いますので、「それはありました 2004, そして、マシュー・エリオットは深くにありました. エリオット, サンアントニオから, テキサス州, 彼がいたときに最初陰謀説が注目されていました 19, 直後に 9/11. 「我々が攻撃できることが計り知れないように見えました,「彼は今日言います. 何が起こったかを理解するために彼の探求に彼は出会いました 悪名高い「2001年9月11日に起きた米国同時多発テロは米国政府の陰謀だと信じている人」の動き, 米国政府のドアに残虐行為のせい産む意見の現在.

ほとんどの陰謀説がレイアウトされている "方法, 一つのことは、常に別につながります, だからそこから、私は与党グループが新世界秩序がすべてを画策呼ばれると確信になりました. これは、すべての戒厳令と私たちの自由の完全な除去につながります,"と彼は言う. 10年後, エリオット, 今 34, 「回収する」陰謀理論家であります, 常にいくつかの秘密のを断定的世界観に背を向けました, 普通の人々の利益に対して作用する強力な力. 変化は徐々に来ました, 彼は現在、非常に異なった考え. 「あなたもの多くを得ることができません 50 物事に同意する状態. 幸運説得力のあるヨーロッパとアジア人は、ボード上に取得します。」

の外傷に対するエリオットの反応 9/11 珍しいから遠く離れました. 攻撃はとても空前ました, そう壊滅的な, 私たちの多くは、それらの意味を理解するために苦労しています. 初期の報告では、混乱や矛盾しました: 結果として、いくつかは懐疑的にイベントの公式バージョンを扱わ. 今度はそれらの割合は、大規模に偽と調整を必要とする説明のためのplumped.

これは私たちを驚かべきではありません: それは、すべてのグローバルショック後に繰り返されるパターンです, パリの攻撃の余波で, それは、再びその頭を飼育しています. フランスの首都でのテロ攻撃の日内, いわゆる「偽フラグ "操作 - ブログが公開された、彼らは政府の仕事であったと主張していました. クレームは、イシスは西部の政府の意図的な創造物であるという考えに休みます. 最近になって, サイードFarookの家族のための弁護士, サンバーナーディーノのシューティングゲームの1, 陰謀投機を煽っ 彼が言ったとき: 「動機の多くはイスラム教徒のコミュニティに向けて銃規制や偏見や憎悪の原因となる事故を強調したり作成するには、この時点であります。」

グローバルイベントのラウンドクロックのカバレッジは、私たちが解釈するための危機と混乱の一定の供給があることを意味します. 隠された手で引っ張られている文字列の物語は、私たちの娯楽の定番です, 差出人 幽霊のBLOFELD のバロック様式の陰謀へ ロンドンスパイ, 今年の最も絶賛されたイギリスのドラマの1, これは偏執的なスタイルの壮大な例で解明. これは陰謀説でその信念は、より広範囲になってきているではありません, 言う ウイルススワミ, アングリア・ラスキン大学で社会心理学の教授: 研究はまだ行われていないながら、, 彼が私に語った, 過去半世紀かそこらのための陰謀でその信念はかなり安定していることを示唆する事例証拠の多くがあります. 何が変更されました, しかしながら, 新たな理論が形成される速度であります. 「それははるかに統合された世界の症状です,"と彼は言う. インターネットはすべてをスピードアップ, 陰謀志向の個人が自分の考えを接続して策定することを可能にします. 対照的に, それはおよそ理論のために数ヶ月かかりました 真珠湾 開発します.

カレン・ダグラス, 別の社会心理学者, echoes this point. “People’s communication patterns have changed quite a lot over the last few years. It’s just so much easier for people to get access to conspiracy information even if they have a little seed of doubt about an official story. It’s very easy to go online and find other people who feel the same way as you.”

Is everyone prone to this kind of thinking, or is it the preserve of an extreme fringe? Douglas reckons it’s more common than most of us realise. “Recent research has shown that about half of Americans believe at least one conspiracy theory,"と彼女は言う. “You’re looking at average people; people you might come across on the street.”

That’s also the view of Rob Brotherton, その new book, Suspicious Minds, explores the traits that predispose us to belief in conspiracies. He cautions against sitting in judgment, since all of us have suspicious minds – and for good reason. Identifying patterns and being sensitive to possible threats is what has helped us survive in a world where nature often is out to get you. “Conspiracy theory books tend to come at it from the point of view of debunking them. I wanted to take a different approach, to sidestep the whole issue of whether the theories are true or false and come at it from the perspective of psychology,"と彼は言う. “The intentionality bias, the proportionality bias, confirmation bias. We have these quirks built into our minds that can lead us to believe weird things without realising that’s why we believe them.”

Ben Whishaw London Spy
Ben Whishaw in London Spy, 今年の最も絶賛されたイギリスのドラマの1, これは偏執的なスタイルの壮大な例で解明. 写真: BBC/WTTV

“Whenever anything ambiguous happens, we have this bias towards assuming that it was intended – that somebody planned it, that there was some kind of purpose or agency behind it, rather than thinking it was just an accident, or chaos, or an unintended consequence of something.” This intentionality bias, Brotherton says, can be detected from early childhood. “If you ask a young kid why somebody sneezed, the kid thinks that they did it on purpose, that the person must really enjoy sneezing. It’s only after about the age of four or five that we begin to learn that not everything that everybody does is intended. We’re able to override that automatic judgment. But research shows that it still stays with us even into adulthood.”

例えば, studies have shown that when people drink alcohol, they are more likely to interpret ambiguous actions as having been deliberate. “So if you’re at the pub and somebody jostles you and spills your drink, if it’s your first drink, you might write it off as an innocent mistake. But if you’re a few drinks in, then you’re more likely to think they did it on purpose, that it was an aggressive act.”

Like most personality traits, proneness to intentionality bias varies across the population. “Some people are more susceptible to it than others.” And, Brotherton explains, there is a small but reliable correlation between that susceptibility and belief in conspiracy theories.

External factors also play a part, もちろん. For Ryan, who asked that I omit his last name, the influence of a single charismatic individual was crucial. It was Johnny, a friend and bandmate, who showed him books and CDs about world government and “served as a guru of sorts”. At the same time as inducting him into the truther movement, “he was introducing me to music I’d never heard and really loved”. At the height of his involvement, Ryan says he believed a broad range of conspiracy theories, including “chemtrails” – the idea that the trails left by planes contain noxious chemicals intended to subdue or poison people; that Aids and Ebola were introduced by governments to control population; that the moon landings were faked; that a substance extracted from apricots called laetrile was an effective cure for cancer, but had been banned by the FDA and dismissed as quackery to protect the interests of Big Pharma. “I strained my relationships with my family badly. It’s always the ones you love the most that you want to ‘wake up’. I ended up in hugely embarrassing debates and arguments,"と彼は言う.

But beyond the anguish it caused for those close to him, were Ryan’s unorthodox beliefs harmful? Karen Douglas is wary of rubbishing all conspiracy theorising as dangerous. “Thinking in that way, it must have some positive consequences. If everybody went around just accepting what they were told by governments, officials, pharmaceutical companies, whoever, then we would be a bunch of sheep, really”. 一方, the effects of certain theories on behaviour can be damaging. Douglas’s own research [pdf download] has shown that exposure to the idea that the British government was involved in the death of Princess Diana reduced people’s intention to engage in politics. Similarly, subjects who read a text stating that climate change was a hoax by scientists seeking funding were less likely to want to take action to reduce their carbon footprint. と anti-vaccine conspiracy narratives make people less likely to vaccinate their children, a clear public health risk.

Should we try to stamp conspiracy theories out, その後、? Part of Brotherton’s argument is that they’re a natural consequence of the way our brains have evolved. それだけでなく, but trying to disprove them can backfire. “Any time you start trying to debunk conspiracy theories, for the people who really believe, that’s exactly what they would expect if the conspiracy were real,"と彼は言う.

Swami sees things differently. “Experimental work that we’ve done shows that it’s possible to reduce conspiracist ideation.” How? Swami found that people who had been encouraged to think analytically during a verbal task were less likely to accept conspiracy theories afterwards. For him, this hints at an important potential role for education. “The best way is, at a societal level, to promote analytical thinking, to teach critical thinking skills.” But that’s not all. When people have faith in their representatives, understand what they are doing and trust that they are not corrupt, they are less likely to believe in coverups. That’s why political transparency ought to be bolstered wherever possible – and corporate transparency, あまりに. “A lot of people have trouble accepting a big organisation’s or government’s narratives of an event, because they’re seen as untrustworthy, they’re seen as liars,” argues Swami.

Improved teaching and changes in political and business culture would undoubtedly help. But conspiracy theories can be rejected for personal reasons, あまりに. Ryan’s view changed with loss of his “guru”.

“I kinda dropped out of contact with Johnny after he got married and had a baby,"と彼は言う. “He was getting further and further into it, and I just couldn’t keep up with the mental gymnastics involved.” He started to look for alternative explanations – less exciting, but more plausible ones. “I looked at the people debating on the national level, for the presidency and such. No way these guys speaking in platitudes and generalisations could really be behind a global conspiracy to enslave or kill me. They weren’t doing a particularly good job of it either, considering how happy I was living my life.

“That was the epiphany, 本当に. I was free. I was happy. None of the doom and gloom predicted and promised ever came.” For Ryan, by then 27, the bizarre ride was over. A world that pitted him against the forces of evil had all the appeal of a spy drama. But real life was less like a story – and in some ways more depressing. What does he think are the forces that really shape things? “Most of what is wrong in the world nowadays – well, I would put it down to incompetence and greed. A lack of compassion.”

guardian.co.uk©ガーディアンニュース & メディア·リミテッド 2010

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