L'intelligenza artificiale possono ora vincere una partita, riconoscere la vostra faccia, anche ricorso contro il biglietto del parcheggio. Ma può fare la roba anche gli esseri umani trovano difficile?
Questo articolo intitolato “Man v macchina: i computer possono cucinare, scrivere e dipingere meglio di noi?” è stato scritto da Leo Benedictus, per The Guardian il Sabato 4 giugno 2016 08.00 UTC (tempo coordinato universale
Un video, per me, cambiato tutto. E 'riprese dal vecchio Atari gioco Scoppiare, quello in cui si fa scorrere una pagaia a destra ea sinistra lungo la parte inferiore dello schermo, cercando di distruggere i mattoni facendo rimbalzare una palla in loro. Potreste aver letto il giocatore del gioco: un algoritmo sviluppato da DeepMind, l'azienda intelligenza artificiale britannico la cui AlphaGo programma ha anche battuto uno dei più grandi mai Go giocatori, Lee Sedol, all'inizio di quest'anno.
Forse ci si aspetta un computer per essere bravo a giochi per computer? Una volta che sanno che cosa fare, certamente farlo più velocemente e in modo più coerente di qualsiasi essere umano. giocatore Breakout di DeepMind sapeva nulla, tuttavia. Non è stato programmato con le istruzioni su come funziona il gioco; non è stato ancora detto come utilizzare i controlli. Tutto ciò che aveva era l'immagine sullo schermo e il comando per cercare di ottenere il maggior numero di punti possibili.
Orologio il video. All'inizio, la paletta lascia cadere la pallina nel dimenticatoio, sapendo niente di meglio. Infine, solo pasticciare in giro, bussa la palla indietro, distrugge un mattone e ottiene un punto, quindi riconosce e fa più spesso. Dopo due ore di pratica ', o circa 300 Giochi, è diventato veramente buona, meglio di quanto tu o io potrà mai essere. Poi, dopo circa 600 Giochi, le cose si fanno spettrale. L'algoritmo inizia puntando nello stesso punto, ancora ed ancora, per scavare attraverso i mattoni nello spazio dietro. Una volta lì, come qualsiasi giocatore Breakout sa, la palla rimbalza in giro per un po ', la raccolta di punti gratuiti. E 'una buona strategia che il computer si avvicinò con il proprio.
"Quando i nostri ricercatori hanno visto questo, che in realtà li sconvolto,"CEO di DeepMind, Demis Hassabis, detto ad un pubblico a una conferenza sulla tecnologia a Parigi. Puoi guardare la sua dimostrazione, pure, e sentire le risate e gli applausi quando la macchina calcola la sua strategia delle tane. Il computer è diventato intelligente, un po 'come noi.
"Intelligenza artificiale" è solo la più antica e più pubblicizzato di frasi ronzio tutto Computing. L'idea è stato messo in discussione seriamente da Alan Turing in Computing Machinery and Intelligence, il 1950 articolo in cui proponeva quello che divenne noto come il test di Turing: se una macchina potrebbe convincervi attraverso la conversazione che era umano, che stava facendo tanto quanto qualsiasi umano possibile per dimostrarlo era veramente pensando. Ma il termine intelligenza artificiale non è stato generalmente utilizzato fino 1955, quando matematico americano John McCarthy proposto una conferenza per gli esperti. Questo ha avuto luogo l'anno successivo, e da allora il campo ha eseguito su un ciclo di circa due decenni di mania e disperazione. (I ricercatori hanno anche un nuovo termine - "inverno AI" - per descrivere i suoi incantesimi di moda. Gli anni 1970 e 1990 sono state particolarmente dure.)
Oggi c'è una nuova mania, che sembra diverso dagli altri: si inserisce in tasca. Un telefono può battere il campione mondiale di scacchi, riconoscere canzoni alla radio e le immagini dei vostri figli, e tradurre la vostra voce in un'altra lingua. Il robot Nao nella foto con Yotam Ottolenghi può camminare su due gambe, parlare, trovare una palla e persino la danza. (Si tratta di un robot, anche se, non AI: non può progettare un menu.)
Audizione sui progressi in AI, non c'è bisogno di un esperto per dirti di essere eccitato, o paura. Basta iniziare a ottenere la sensazione: l'intelligenza è qui. Chiaramente Google ha la sensazione, pure, perché ha comprato DeepMind per un $ 650 vocifera. In 2013, Facebook ha lanciato il proprio progetto, con l'intenzione di sviluppare il riconoscimento facciale lingua e naturale per il sito. Gli sviluppatori hanno già iniziato a lavorare su chatbots intelligenti, che gli utenti di Facebook saranno in grado di evocare utilizzando il suo servizio Messenger.
Finora, i computer non sono stati "intelligente" a tutti, o solo per poco così. Sono stati bravi a compiti facili che ci abbagliano, come ad esempio la matematica, ma male a quelli che diamo per scontato, che risultano essere seriamente difficile. L'atto di camminare è qualcosa che i robot moderni imparare come bambini e ancora lottare con; compiti PÖTTERING base rimangono sogni lontani. "Un esempio è la facilità con cui voi o io potrebbe fare una tazza di tè in cucina di qualcun altro,"dice Professor Alan Winfield, una di robotica presso l'Università del West of England. "Non c'è un robot sul pianeta che potrebbe fare questo."
Per capire perché essere umano è così difficile, pensare a come si potrebbe ottenere un computer per riconoscere le persone dalle fotografie. senza AI, devi sapere come si fa da soli prima, per programmare il calcolatore. È necessario raccogliere e pensare a tutti i possibili modelli, colori e forme di facce, e come cambiare alla luce e ad angoli differenti - e si deve sapere ciò che è significativo e ciò che è solo fango sulla lente. con AI, non c'è bisogno di spiegare: basta dare una montagna di dati reali a un computer e lasciarlo imparare. Come si progetta il software per l'apprendimento rimane una questione esoterica, provincia di alcuni scienziati informatici ricercati dopo, ma è chiaro che hanno avuto su di un vincitore per ideare strutture di elaborazione dati basati liberamente sulle strutture del cervello. (Questo si chiama "apprendimento profondo".) Per quanto riguarda le montagne di dati reali, bene, questo è ciò che Google, Facebook, Amazon, Uber and all the rest happen to have lying around.
At this stage, we don’t yet know which uses of AI will turn out best. Josh Newlan, a California coder working in Shanghai, got bored with listening to endless conference calls, così he built some software to listen for him. Ora, whenever Newlan’s name is mentioned, his computer instantly sends him a transcript of the last half-minute, waits 15 secondi, then plays a recording of him saying, “Sorry, I didn’t realise my microphone was on mute.” Last year, Josh Browder, a British teenager, built a free artificial lawyer that appeals against parking tickets; he plans to build another to guide refugees through foreign legal systems. The possibilities are… Well, maybe an algorithm can count the possibilities.
So will machine minds one day outstrip our own? The researchers I speak to are cautious, and take pains to emphasise what their machines can’t do. But I decided to put AI to the test: can it plan a meal as well as Ottolenghi? Can it paint my portrait? Is technology still artificially intelligent – or is it starting to be intelligent, for real?
The cooking test
Bene, I will say it isn’t horrible. Humans have served me worse. Although in truth the name that IBM’s Chef Watson gives this dish (“Chicken Liver Savoury Sauce”) is about as appetising as it deserves.
To be fair to Chef Watson, and to Guardian Weekend’s own chef-columnist Yotam Ottolenghi, I had set them quite a task. I asked for a dish based on four ingredients that seemed to belong nowhere near each other: chicken livers, Greek yoghurt, wasabi and tequila. They could add whatever else they liked, but those four had to be in the finished dish, which I would cook and eat. Chef Watson didn’t hesitate, instantly giving me two pasta sauces. Ottolenghi was more circumspect. “When I got the challenge I thought, ‘This is not going to work,’” he tells me.
I thought the same. Or at least I thought I would end up eating two dishes that managed to be OK despite their ingredients, rather than because of them. In fact – and you’ll think me a creep, but so what – Ottolenghi’s recipe was a revelation: liver and onion and a tequila reduction, served with an apple, radish, beetroot and chicory slaw, with a wasabi and yoghurt dressing. The dish may make little sense on paper, but I devoured a plateful feeling that every element belonged. (And vinaigrette thickened with yoghurt and wasabi instead of mustard: seriously, give it a try.) Ottolenghi tells me the recipe is just a whisker short of publishable.
The thing is, that dish took him and his team three days to perfect. They were able to taste and discuss flavours, textures, colours, temperature, in a way that Watson can’t – although there have been “discussions” about adding a feedback mechanism in future, Chef Watson’s lead engineer, Florian Pinel, tells me. “A recipe is such a complex thing,” Ottolenghi says. “It’s difficult for me even to understand how a computer would approach it.”
Watson was first built by IBM to win the television gameshow Jeopardy! in 2011. In some ways it was a misleading challenge, because for a computer the tough part of a quiz is understanding the questions, not knowing the answers; for humans, it’s the other way around. But Watson won, and its technology began to be applied elsewhere, including as a chef, generating new recipes based on 10,000 real examples taken from Bon Appétit magazine.
First the software had to “ingest” these recipes, as the Watson team put it. A lot of computation went into understanding what the ingredients were, how they were prepared, how long they were cooked for, in order to be able to explain how to use them in new dishes. (The process can still go awry. Even now Chef Watson recommends an ingredient called “Mollusk”, which it helpfully explains is “the sixth full-length album by Ween”.)
A bigger problem was trying to give the machine a sense of taste. “It’s easy enough for a computer to create a novel combination,” Pinel says, “but how can it evaluate one?” Watson was taught to consider each ingredient as a combination of specific flavour compounds – of which there are thousands – and then to combine ingredients that had compounds in common. (This principle, food pairing, is well established among humans.) Infine, the software generates step-by-step instructions that make sense to a human cook. The emphasis is on surprises rather than practical meal planning. “Chef Watson is really there to inspire you,” Pinel explains. Each recipe comes with the reminder to “use your own creativity and judgment”.
And I need to. The first step is to “toast flat-leaf parsley”, which just isn’t a good idea. I am making, effectively, a slow-cooked spiced pork and beef ragu, including all my four ingredients, yet Watson oddly also includes cucumber and keeps telling me to “season with allspice”, which I refuse to do on principle. Alla fine, I have a rich sauce with a flavour rather close to the farmyard, but not uneatable. I can’t taste the wasabi or the tequila, which I’m glad about.
Watson is clever and the task is tough, but I am ready to say that this is no more than a bit of fun for food nerds, until Ottolenghi stops me. “I think the idea of slow-cooking the livers with a bit of meat is great,"Dice. “It intensifies the flavour. Everything will come together. If I had to start afresh with this recipe, obviously the yoghurt doesn’t fit – but I would leave the orange skin there, a few of the spices. I don’t think it’s a very bad recipe. It could work.”
Verdetto Watson hides the weirdness of the ingredients, but Ottolenghi makes them sing.
The writing test
Put little Wordsmith next to the fearsome machines of IBM and Google, and it looks as computationally advanced as a pocket calculator. Yet while Watson fumbles through its apprenticeship, Wordsmith is already at work. If you read stock market reports from the Associated Press, or Yahoo’s sports journalism, there is a good chance you’ll think they were written by a person.
Wordsmith is an artificial writer. Developed by a company in North Carolina called Automated Insights, it plucks the most interesting nuggets from a dataset and uses them to structure an article (or email, or product listing). When it comes across really big news, it uses more emotive language. It varies diction and syntax to make its work more readable. Even a clumsy robot chef can have its uses, but writing for human readers must be smooth. Hooked up to a voice-recognition device such as Echo di Amazon, Wordsmith can even respond to a spoken human question – about the performance of one’s investments, say – with a thoughtfully spoken answer, announcing what’s interesting first, and leaving out what isn’t interesting at all. If you didn’t know the trick, you’d think Hal 9000 had arrived.
The trick is this: Wordsmith does the part of writing that people don’t realise is easy. Locky Stewart from Automated Insights gives me a tutorial. You write into Wordsmith a sentence such as, “New ABC figures show that the New York Inquirer’s circulation rose 3% in April.” Then you play around. Il 3% has come from your data, so you select the word “rose” and write a rule, known as a “branch”, which will change the word “rose” to the phrase “shot up” if the percentage is more than 5%. Then you branch “rose” to become “fell” if the percentage is negative. If the percentage is -5% or lower, “rose” becomes “plummeted”.
Then you feed it synonyms. So “plummeted” can also be “fell sharply by”. “The Inquirer’s circulation” can be “circulation at the Inquirer”. “Shot up” can be “soared” and so on. Then you add more sentences, perhaps about online traffic, or about which days’ print copies sold best, or about comparisons year-on-year. Then you get clever. You tell Wordsmith to put the sentences with the most newsworthy information first, defined perhaps as those that feature the greatest percentage changes. Maybe you add a branch to say that a result is “the best/worst performance among the quality titles”. Hell, you can even teach it some old Fleet Street tricks, so that if circulation plummets the piece begins “Editor Charles Kane is facing fierce criticism as”, but if circulation has “shot up” this becomes “Charles Kane has silenced critics with news that”. Insert “more” or “again” or “continues” if you get the same thing two months in a row.
“The artificial intelligence is actually the human intelligence that is building the network of logic,” Stewart says, “the same network you would use when writing a story. It could have been developed 10 o 15 anni fa, in code, but to make it work at this scale has only been possible lately.” Clearly it takes longer to prepare an article on Wordsmith than to write one conventionally, but once you’ve done so, the computer can publish a fresh newspaper circulation story every month, on every newspaper, within seconds of receiving the information. It can publish millions of stories in minutes – or publish only some of them, if the data doesn’t reach a given threshold of newsworthiness. Thus it becomes an automated editor, pure, with adjustable tastes in thoroughness, frequency and hysteria.
For Wordsmith’s task, I suggest football: it’s a field that produces a lot of data and has a readership that wants personalised articles. Guardian football writer Jacob Steinberg volunteers to take on the computer, and I provide a table of facts from the recent Premier League: last season’s league position and this season’s position at Christmas and at the end, goals scored and conceded, top scorer’s name and total, value of summer transfers and a quote from the manager.
Working solely from this data, computer and human must each write a review of the season for a given club. Steinberg chooses Leicester City on the basis that its numbers should contain a story that anyone would see. Wordsmith doesn’t need to choose. It will do all 20.
And in fact both computer and human quickly produce quite similar work:
Both Steinberg and Wordsmith deliver dramatic first sentences. Perhaps keen to sound authentic, Automated Insights use some clever tricks to put feeling into the latter’s article, astutely guessing that Leicester were “hoping to finish in the top 10 after a 14th place finish last season”. I look through Wordsmith’s other articles and Southampton, having finished seventh last season, have “eyes on a European spot”, while Manchester City “began the season dreaming of a league title after finishing second”.
Conversely, Steinberg digs more meaningfully into the numbers, showing that Jamie Vardy not only scored 24 obiettivi, but that this was a higher percentage of his team’s goals than was managed by all but two other players. Knowing how Wordsmith works, naturalmente, one could easily set it up to do the same. In fact looking through it, Steinberg’s entire article could have been created by a skilled Wordsmith programmer – with the exception of one line. “It’s a magical season,” he quotes the Leicester manager as saying, before adding, “justifiably so, given that a summer expenditure of £26.7m on transfers made them the eighth lowest spenders”. That “justifiably so” shows a writer who actually understands what he is writing.
Verdetto Steinberg is a much better writer, unless you want 20 data-heavy articles in 10 verbale.
The painting test
A laptop wants me to smile. “It’s in a good mood," Simon Colton dice. He knows because he’s the scientist who programmed it. We are in the Science Museum in London, where the Painting Fool, as it is called, is giving a public demonstration. It’s important that I don’t show my teeth, Colton says, because something about the light makes them look green to the Painting Fool.
From my toothless smile the laptop creates a “conception” of what it would like to paint, based on its mood. The mood comes from a “sentiment analysis” of recent Guardian articles, as it happens (on average reading the Guardian is a downer, apparentemente, apart from the stuff about gardening). Yesterday the Fool was in such a bad mood that it sent someone away unpainted; today it is feeling “positive”.
Next the Fool attempts to paint with a simulated brush and a simulated hand (actually, an image of Colton’s hand) on the screen behind me. It learned to reflect its mood from the work of Dan Ventura, another computer scientist, at Brigham Young University in Utah, who trained a neural network to recognise the emotional attributes of images by sitting thousands of people in front of tens of thousands of paintings and asking them to tag each one with whatever adjectives came to mind. The Fool now knows that bright colours reflect a good mood, and “pencils with tight hatching” create a picture that is “cold”. When it is done, it prints out a page with a typed self-critique. "Complessivamente, this is quite a bright portrait,” it says. “That’s OK, but my style has lowered the level of bright here. So I’m a bit annoyed about that.”
Here along with us, intrigued but too busy at her easel to watch, è Sarah Jane Moon, an artist who exhibits with the Royal Society of Portrait Painters. She doesn’t want to see my teeth, o. “We paint from life," lei dice, “and you can’t hold a smile for sitting upon sitting. That’s why all the traditional portraits show quite relaxed features.”
The Painting Fool is a special machine, and even slightly famous, but I can’t deny that Moon is almost all of why I’m excited to be here. The feeling of being painted by a real person, having them look at you and think about you, is exciting and flattering. Sentiment analysis and training data, d'altra parte, don’t add up to anything whose view of me I care about, and the finished portraits do not change my mind. Moon’s is a lovely, real thing, which feels straight away like one person seen by another. The Fool’s three efforts have qualities I like, but mostly they look like photographs that have gone through some kind of software filter. Colton insists the Fool is here “to learn to be better” but I look and think: so what?
Then I think some more. For one thing, it turns out that art is more mechanical than I’d realised. “I try to look at Leo as an abstract set of shapes, le forme, colours, tones,” Moon tells Colton, “to get away from the fact that that’s a nose. Because when you start to do that, you get caught up in what you pensare looks like a nose.”
“What the software does is break it down into colour regions,” Colton says.
"Sì, di preciso,” Moon agrees. “I think that’s what the best painters do. It’s transcribing.” Afterwards she tells me she felt a kind of “kinship” with the software as they worked side by side.
Ma ancora più importante, I realise that what matters isn’t how the machine paints; it’s how I see. Moon I understand, Penso che. She’s a person and I know how that feels, so I care about her picture. But what does it feel like to be the Painting Fool? Is that what its portraits are trying to tell me?
Verdetto Moon’s painting is far richer; the Fool is still learning and has centuries of practice to go.
The translation test
Google Translate was the first piece of proper science fiction to come true, e it’s already a decade old. In many ways it typifies where AI has got to. Useful, sure; impressive, without question; but still clunky as hell, despite big improvements.
If you haven’t used it, it works like this: enter text or web links in any of 103 supported languages and you get a rough translation seconds later in any of the others. The app on your phone will transcribe what you say and then speak it back, Tradotta (32 languages supported); it can replace the text of a foreign language sign or menu wherever you point the camera. No explanation is needed of how cool that is (and it’s free).
Globally, half a billion people use Google Translate each month, mostly those who don’t speak English (which is 80% delle persone) but who want to understand the internet (which is 50% Inglese). “Most of our growth, and actually most of our traffic, comes from developing or emerging markets such as Brazil, Indonesia, India, Tailandia,” says Barak Turovsky, head of product management and user experience at Google Translate. It’s surprisingly popular for dating, pure, he adds. “Things like ‘I love you’ and ‘You have beautiful eyes’, that’s very prevalent.”
The software has always used a form of statistical machine learning: scouring the internet for already translated text – UN declarations, EU documents – and mapping the likelihood of certain words and phrases corresponding to one another. The more data it gathers, the better it gets, but the improvement levelled off a couple of years ago. Presto, Turovsky says, they will deploy new deep learning algorithms, which will produce much more fluent translations.
Anche così, there are limits, and some seem fundamental when you talk to a human translator and realise how subtle their work is. Ros Schwartz e Anne de Freyman volunteer for this task. Both are professional French/English translators, and I need two because, in order to judge how good the translation is without being fluent in both languages, we need to translate twice – once out of English into French, once back again. Google Translate keeps no memory of the original and can do the same thing.
I choose a short passage of distinctive but not especially wild or ambiguous prose from the beginning of Herzog by Saul Bellow. Translators normally require context, so I tell Schwartz and De Freyman that it comes from a famous mid-century American novel.
Within a few days, Schwartz and De Freyman return a very smooth facsimile of the original text. Here and there some nuances have not survived, but the passage remains a pleasure to read, and the main meanings come across exactly.
Google Translate takes only a few seconds, and the result is both impressive and inadequate, weirdly good in places, in others weirdly bad – turning “he” into “it” and concocting the idea that Herzog is in love. Miraculously, it keeps “cracked” as a description of the hero. French has no word that combines the sense of “broken” and “mad” that cracked coveys in English, so De Freyman makes it “cinglé”, which comes back from Schwartz as “crazy”.
“Google Translate would look at statistical probability and say, what does ‘cracked’ mean?” Turovsky explains. “And statistically, it will try to decide whether it means ‘cracked’ or ‘crazy’ or whatever. Quella, for a machine, is a non-trivial task.” Nor is it simple for a human, even though we find it easy. You’d have to ask whether Bellow could have meant that Herzog was “cracked” as in physically fractured. Then you’d have to assume not, because human bodies don’t generally do that. So you’d wonder what he did mean and assume instead, if you were not already familiar with the usage, that he must mean “crazy”, because you understand the rest of what you’ve read. But to do all this, wouldn’t Google Translate have to be pretty much conscious, I ask? Turovsky laughs. “I don’t think I’m qualified to answer that question.”
Verdetto Some bullseyes and howlers from Google Translate, while Schwartz and De Freyman are fluent and exact.
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