Reykingar hár-styrkur kannabis getur skemmt taugaþræði í heila

Smoking high-strength cannabis may damage nerve fibres in brain

 

Keyrt guardian.co.ukÞessi grein sem heitir “Reykingar hár-styrkur kannabis getur skemmt taugaþræði í heila” var skrifuð af Ian Sample Science ritstjóri, for The Guardian on Friday 27th November 2015 00.01 UTC

High-strength cannabis may damage nerve fibres that handle the flow of messages across the two halves of the brain, scientists claim. Brain scans of people who regularly smoked strong skunk-like cannabis ljós lúmskur munur á hvítu efni sem tengir vinstri og hægri heilahvelum og ber merki frá einni hlið heilans til annars.

Breytingarnar koma ekki fram í þeim sem aldrei notað kannabis reykt aðeins minna öfluga af lyfinu, vísindamenn fundið.

Rannsóknin er talin vera fyrstur til að líta á áhrif af kannabis virkni á byggingu heila, og bendir til þess að meiri notkun Skunk getur valdið meiri skaða corpus callosum, making communications across the brain’s hemispheres less efficient.

Paola Dazzan, a neurobiologist at the Institute of Psychiatry at King’s College London, said the effects appeared to be linked to the level of active ingredient, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), in cannabis. While traditional forms of cannabis contain 2 að 4 % THC, the more potent varieties (of which there are about 100), can contain 10 að 14% THC, according to the DrugScope charity.

“If you look at the corpus callosum, hvað við erum að sjá er marktækur munur á hvíta efninu á milli þeirra sem nota kröftugri kannabis og þá sem aldrei nota lyfið, eða nota lágmark-styrkleika lyf,"Sagði Dazzan. Corpus callosum er ríkt kannabisviðtökum, á sem THC efni virkar.

A DTI mynd af corpus callosum, eins og séð frá hlið, er sýnd með rauðu á og lagt ofan á bakgrunni MRI myndina í heila.
A DTI mynd af corpus callosum, eins og séð frá hlið, er sýnd með rauðu á og lagt ofan á bakgrunni MRI myndina í heila. Loftmynd: Institute of Psychiatry

"Munurinn er það hvort sem þú ert geðrofi eða ekki, and we think this is strictly related to the potency of the cannabis,” she added. Details of the study are reported in the journal Psychological Medicine.

The researchers used two scanning techniques, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to examine the corpus callosum, the largest region of white matter, in the brains of 56 patients who had reported a first episode of psychosis, og 43 healthy volunteers from the local community.

Skannar ljós að dagleg notendur hár-virknigilda kannabis haft örlítið meira - með um 2% - "Meina dreifni" í corpus callosum. "Það endurspeglar vandamál í hvíta efni sem á endanum gerir það minna duglegur,"Dazzan sagði Guardian. "Við vitum ekki nákvæmlega hvað það þýðir fyrir mann, en það bendir það er minna duglegur miðlun upplýsinga. "

Rannsóknin getur ekki staðfest að mikið magn af THC í kannabis valdið breytingum á hvítt. Eins Dazzan athugasemdum, it is may be that people with damaged white matter are more likely to smoke skunk in the first place.

“It is possible that these people already have a different brain and they are more likely to use cannabis. But what we can say is if it’s high potency, and if you smoke frequently, your brain is different from the brain of someone who smokes normal cannabis, and from someone who doesn’t smoke cannabis at all,"Sagði hún.

But even with the uncertainty over cause and effect, she urged users and public health workers to change how they think about cannabis use. “When it comes to alcohol, we are used to thinking about how much people drink, and whether they are drinking wine, beer, or whisky. We should think of cannabis in a similar way, in terms of THC and the different contents cannabis can have, and potentially the effects on health will be different,"Sagði hún.

“As we have suggested previously, when assessing cannabis use, it is extremely important to gather information on how often and what type of cannabis is being used. These details can help quantify the risk of mental health problems and increase awareness of the type of damage these substances can do to the brain,” she added.

In February, Dazzan and others at the Institute of Psychiatry tilkynnt that the ready availability of skunk in south London might be behind a rise in the proportion of new cases of psychosis being attributed to cannabis.

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