Ọtụtụ akwara ozi Emebi Memory

Too Many Neurons Spoil the Memory

New nnyocha na-ekpughe na cellular usoro nke ebe nchekwa-ngbanwe neuronal netwọk iputa


Kwadoro site na Guardian.co.ukIsiokwu a na-akpọ “Ọtụtụ akwara ozi kwatara akwata na ebe nchekwa” e dere site knife Costandi, n'ihi na theguardian.com on Friday 12 February 2016 15.15 UTC

Gwa m ebe biri echiche, echefu ruo mgbe ị na-akpọ ha puta? Gwa m ebe biri ọṅụ nke ochie, na ebe nke oge ochie n'anya, Na mgbe ha ga-eme ọzọ, na abalị nke nchefu gara aga, Ka m wee na-agazu ugboro na oghere dị anya na n'ime ime obodo, na-eme ka akasi Obi n'ime a ugbu mwute na a n'abalị nke mgbu? Ebe ị na-agaghachi, O echiche? Ka ihe n'ime obodo ala-gi ụgbọ elu? Ọ buru na i returnest ruo ugbu oge nke iweda-n'ala, I nāchọ eme ka ntụsara on gi nku, na dews na mmanụ aṅụ na balm, Ma ọ bụ nsi si na mbara wilds, site n'anya ndị envier?

Ya The Epic uri, Ọhụụ nke Daughters of Albion, William Blake ebube banyere ọdịdị nke ebe nchekwa, ikike o nwere uche ibufe anyị anya ugboro ma ebe, na ndị dị ike mmetụta uche, ma ndị nke ọma ma ndị nke ọjọọ, na anyị cheta nwere ike ịkpasu. The uri dere ajụjụ na-anọgide na-ukwuu mkpa taa, dị ka ihe na-eme anyị ogologo furu efu echeta, , oleekwa otú anyị weghachite ha?

Ihe karịrị narị afọ abụọ gasịrị, na usoro nke na ebe nchekwa nchekwa na icheta ya ndị kasị intensively mụọ phenomena na ụbụrụ na sayensị. Ọ na-kweere n'ọtụtụ ebe na ebe nchekwa guzobere na-agụnye ike nke jikọrọ sparsely-ekesa na netwọk nke akwara ozi na a ụbụrụ Ọdịdị akpọ hippocampus, na na ụdi nlaghachie agụnye reactivation nke otu neuronal ensembles. ma, ọkà mmụta akwara ka na-alụ iji zaa Blake si ajụjụ maa.

Ugbu a, otu ìgwè ndị nnyocha na Mahadum nke Geneva mere ihe ọzọ dị mkpa tupu ke nghọta anyị nke nural-akpata ebe nchekwa guzobere. Iji a ala-nke na-art usoro a na-akpọ optogenetics, ha na-egosi otú ndị neuronal ensembles na encode echeta iputa, ekpughe na ensembles nwere ọtụtụ akwara ozi - ma ọ bụ mmadụ ole na ole - imebi ebe nchekwa nlaghachie.

optogenetics bụ kemgwucha dị ike na Usoro na-agụnye ewebata algal ndi na-edozi akpọ channelrhodopsins (ChRs) n'ime akwara ozi. Nke a sụgharịrị mkpụrụ ndụ chebaara ìhè, dị otú ahụ na kwuru kpọmkwem iche iche n'ime ha nwere ike Switched ma ọ bụ gbanyụọ, eji pulses nke laser ìhè nye n'ime ụbụrụ via ngwa anya emep uta eri, on a timescale nke milliseconds.

N'afọ adịbeghị anya, eme nchọpụta na-eji optogenetics ịkpọ hippocampal akwara ozi ndị aghọ ike n'oge dị na ebe nchekwa guzobere na òké ụbụrụ, na iji na-aghọgbu kpọrọ ensembles n'ụzọ dị iche iche. N'ụzọ nke a, ha nwere ike reactivate otu ensembles ka eji na ebe nchekwa nlaghachie; ịgbanwee egwu na-echeta ma ọ bụ gbanyụọ; tọghata-adịghị mma na-echeta n'ime ihe ndị ziri ezi, ma ọ bụ Anglịkan; na ọbụna ịkụbanye kpamkpam ụgha na-echeta n'ime ụbụrụ nke ụmụ oke.

The nchọpụta ọhụrụ, edu Pablo-agụ egwú na ụla Dominique Müller, onye n'ụzọ dị mwute nwuru a gliding mberede na April nke afọ gara aga, ewuli ke a na mbụ ọrụ. Ha kere genetically engineered ụmụ oke na-ekwupụta ChR na granule mkpụrụ ndụ na otu akụkụ nke ụbụrụ, na dentate region nke hippocampus. Granule mkpụrụ ndụ bụ ụkpụrụ akwara ozi na mpaghara a nke hippocampus, nke na-eche na-oké egwu maka hippocampal ọrụ dị ka ebe nchekwa na gbasara ohere navigation. Ha etinye ụmụ anụmanụ n'ime nnukwu ngịga, ikwe ụfọdụ n'ime ha inyocha ha na-aga. Ka ọ dịgodị, ha optogenetically ọrụ random granule mkpụrụ ndụ na ụfọdụ n'ime ụmụ oke, ma ọ bụghị ndị ọzọ.

Hippocampal granule mkpụrụ ndụ na-ekwupụta Channelrhodopsin (na red).
Hippocampal granule mkpụrụ ndụ na-ekwupụta Channelrhodopsin (na red). Image: Pablo-agụ egwú

Mgbe ha dissected na-enyocha ụmụ anụmanụ 'ụbụrụ 45 nkeji mgbe e mesịrị, na-eme nchọpụta chọpụtara gbasara ohere ngagharị kpaliworo ọrụ ensembles nke hippocampal akwara ozi, dị ka akọwapụtara site na ọkwa nke cFos, a na-akpọ 'ihe ozugbo n'isi' site n'usoro na na Switched na ngwa ngwa mgbe akwara ozi-amalite na-ọkụ. ihe, ụmụ oke kwere inyocha ha ngịga nwere elu nọmba nke cFos-ekwupụta granule mkpụrụ ndụ karịa ndị hapụrụ n'ụlọ ha ngịga maka oge nke nnwale, na ndị na natara optogenetic mmalite n'oge ngagharị nwere budata elu nọmba nke cFos-positive akwara ozi karịa ndị nke mere abụghị.

Nke a gosiri na gbasara ohere ngagharị na-enye ọrụ na ensembles nke dentate granule mkpụrụ ndụ, na na enweghị usoro ndị mejupụtara ọrụ nke netwọk ndị a na optogenetic mmalite enwekwu ndị size nke ensembles, ma ọ bụ nọmba nke mkpụrụ ndụ n'ime ha.

Ma emeghari na nke nke ensembles mmetụta ọ bụla n'akparamàgwà? Iji chọpụta, -Agụ egwú na ndị òtù ya enịm ụmụ oke na-ekwupụta ChR ha hippocampi n'ime ọzọ onu, ma nye ha ọtụtụ nwayọọ electric ịtụnanya. Na ugboro ugboro nke a ọgwụgwọ, na ụmụ oke ọsọ ọsọ mụta ịtụ egwu onu, na ngwa ngwa ifriizi elu mgbe laghachi na ya, ọbụna mgbe ha na-adịghị ahụ ndị ịtụnanya.

Oge nke a, na-eme nnyocha optogenetically kpaliri random granule mkpụrụ ndụ na ụfọdụ n'ime ụmụ oke, ma ọ bụghị ndị ọzọ, n'oge ọzụzụ, iji mee ka size nke neuronal ensemble na-ebu ụzọ amata ndị na-atụ egwu na ebe nchekwa. Ndị a ụmụ oke gosipụtawo na-erughị kefriza omume mgbe laghachi na otu onu karịa ndị ọzọ na-enwetagh mmalite. Ma mmalite kekwara wuru egwu echeta, dị otú ahụ na ụmụ anụmanụ froze elu ndị ọzọ ọnọdụ, oke.

Mgbochi nke random granule mkpụrụ ndụ ahụ na-eme, -atụ aro na nanị ndị mejupụtara ọnụ ọgụgụ nke akwara ozi na ensemble emebikwa ụmụ anụmanụ 'ike icheta ihe atụ egwu echeta. Nchọpụta ndị a na-agbanwe agbanwe na nke mbụ ọmụmụ, nke gosikwara na inhibiting ma ọ bụ na-akpali akpali granule cell ọrụ ọ gaghịzi Contextual mmụta.

Aka ịghọta ihe mere nke a pụrụ ịbụ, na-eme nnyocha rụrụ ọzọ usoro nke nwere, eji microelectrodes ka ịdekọ ọrụ nke akwara ozi na Mpekere nke hippocampal anụ ahụ. Ndị a nwere gosiri na optogenetic mmetuta nke granule mkpụrụ ndụ na-emepụta a siri ike omume na ha gbara agbata obi interneurons, nke hapụ inhibitory ọgụgụ akwara mbufe ozi Geba.

N'ihi ya, na firing nke granule mkpụrụ ndụ na-eduga inhibitory interneurons, nke belata n'akụkụ granule mkpụrụ ndụ na-egbochi ha abanye ensemble. N'ụzọ nke a, interneurons egosi ime ka iku ọhụrụ-guzobere na-echeta site inye iwu na ọnụ ọgụgụ na nkesa nke granule mkpụrụ ndụ aka ngbanwe-echeta. Rụọ ọrụ ma ọ bụ silencing random granule mkpụrụ ndụ ewute usoro a na-agbanwe ọnụ ọgụgụ nke granule mkpụrụ ndụ, nke nwere ike ime ka ọhụrụ na-echeta ejighị n'aka.

"N'isiokwu a, anyị na-eji a mfe ụdị ebe nchekwa, ebe nchekwa nke a gbasara ohere onodu, ma ihe ịma aka na-amụ otú ihe mgbagwoju ahụmahụ na-n'isi, na otú ụbụrụ emekọ nchekwa nke multiple ahụmahụ,"Na-ekwu agụ egwú. "Ịghọta ajụjụ ndị a nwere ike inyere anyị aka ịghọta ókè nke ụbụrụ si nchekwa ikike."

Reference

Stefanelli, T., et al. (2016). Hippocampal Somatostatin Interneurons Control ndị Size nke Neuronal Memory Ensembles. Neuron, 89: 1-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.01.024 [nkịtị]

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