N'elu anọ oge a killers na n'ebe ọdịda anyanwụ

The top four modern killers in the west

 

Kwadoro site na Guardian.co.ukIsiokwu a na-akpọ “N'elu anọ oge a killers na n'ebe ọdịda anyanwụ” e dere site Robin McKie, n'ihi na The Observer on Saturday 6 June 2015 23.05 UTC

Ọrịa cancer

Ebee ka anyị nọ
-Agha megide cancer ahụ si bụrụ otu nke kasị ukwuu ọgụgụ isi na ihe ịma aka ndị nke oge a. A narị afọ gara aga, -awa ahụ adọ kụziri site n'oge iche nke radieshon ọgwụ bụ nanị ihe na ngwá agha ahụ jiri dọkịta. Kemgbe ahụ, a ọnụ ọgụgụ nke isi revolutions gbanwere na.

The mbụ bụ iwebata anara ọgwụ, n'ụdị ọgwụ ọjọọ na-ewepụtara, eleezie, si mustard gas nke e ji mee ihe dị ka ngwá agha n'oge agha ụwa nke mbụ. Dọkịta na ndị rụrụ autopsies on gas tara kwuru na ya iji gbochie ha ịkpa cell nkewa, na mepụtara nsụgharị nke nyeere ịkwụsị akpụ mkpụrụ ndụ si proliferating. Ọ bụ ndị a na-eme agwọ ọrịa ke 1950s.

Gịnị now?
Dị ka genomic research ọganihu n'ihe narị afọ nke 20, ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị na-eji ihe ọmụma ahụ na ịzụlite ọhụrụ e si agwọ ọrịa. -Adịbeghị anya ọganihu gụnyere ezubere iche therapies. Ndị a bụ ọzọ ụfọdụ n'ime ha ihe megide etuto ahụ n'ihi na ha na-eme na molekụla zaa metụtara akpan akpan ndụ nke kansa, ebe ọtụtụ ọkọlọtọ chemotherapies mee nile ngwa ngwa nkerisi sel, -abụ ha nkịtị ma ọ bụ ọrịa cancer,.

Ọmụmaatụ, na banyere otu onye na ise ọrịa ara ure ọrịa, akpụ mkpụrụ ndụ nwere ukwuu nke a ibu-akwalite protein maara dị ka HER2 on ha elu. Ara ọrịa cancer na ukwuu nke a protein bụ karịsịa ike ike, ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị chọpụtara. A ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ọgwụ ọjọọ, dị ka Herceptin, e mepụtara iji nwaa a protein na-egbochi mgbasa nke akpụ mkpụrụ ndụ. Ndị a ezubere iche usoro ọgwụgwọ na-now a ide na agha megide cancer.

Gịnị bụ isi nsogbu?
Nnukwu ọganihu a na-mere, ma na abụrụ nsogbu nwere ike ịbụ ego kama oru. The ọgbọ ọhụrụ nke ọgwụ ọjọọ na-mepụtara dị oke ọnụ, -azụ ajụjụ nke affordability.

Were ọhụrụ technology nke immunotherapy. Ndụ nke kansa enweta a ụdị nzuzo okwukwe aka emi enyikde T-mkpụrụ ndụ, a akụkụ dị mkpa nke ahu si mgbochi ọrịa chebe onwe, ọ bụghị ọgụ ha. Na 1990s, ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị chọpụtara a molekul na T-mkpụrụ ndụ nke ahụ bụ akụkụ nke a okwukwe aka. A na-akpọ kenyere ọnwụ 1 (PD1) na, ebe ọ bụ na ya chọpụtara, na-eme nnyocha anọwo na-anwa akpaghasị ya ọrụ.

The ọhụrụ ọgwụ ọjọọ eme unveiled ke Chicago ikpeazụ izu bụ n'ihi nke a. Ọnwụnwa na ọrịa na elu melanoma, nke nwere a elu ọnwụ ọnụego, -ama-emepụta ezigbo ihe a, ma ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị adọ aka ná ntị na e nwere oké njọ n'akụkụ-mmetụta na ụfọdụ ọrịa.

ụbụrụ slide
Foto: Alamy

mgbaka

Ebee ka anyị nọ?
Mgbaka bụ n'ezie a ọrịa. Ọ bụ ihe ga-esi ọtụtụ dị iche iche na ọnọdụ. Ọrịa Alzheimer bụ ihe kasị nkịtị nke ndị a ma ndị ọzọ na-agụnye vaskụla mgbaka na frontotemporal mgbaka. All nke a iche-iche ịkọrọ ọsọ mgbaàmà, Otú ọ dị. Ndị a gụnyere ebe nchekwa na ọnwụ, mgbagwoju anya na àgwà mgbanwe.

Mgbe mgbaka N'ezie, ọ bụghị-apụghị izere ezere pụta nke na-ochie, likelihood nke na-emepe emepe ọnọdụ doro anya enwekwu na afọ. N'ihi ya, dị ka efe efe na-emecha merie na UK, na enwe udu maka cancer na obi na ọnọdụ amanye ala, ọtụtụ ndị enwewo ike enwe agadi. (Ndu ndimmadu na UK bụ ugbu a 79 ma nwoke ma 83 n'ihi na ndị inyom.)

taa, ya na gbakọọ na e nwere ugbu a ihe karịrị 850,000 ndị na-mgbaka na UK.

Gịnị now?
site 2025, ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ikpe nke mgbaka na UK na-atụ anya-ebili ka ihe karịrị 1 nde. site 2050, A na-atụ gafere 2 nde. Na mgbakwunye, ọnọdụ e hụrụ na-karịsịa nkịtị ke inyom. Nke 850,000 mgbaka ọrịa na Britain, 500,000 bụ nwaanyị. N'ihi ya, inyom n'elu 60 dị ugbu a ka ugboro abụọ ka hà ga-mgbaka dị ka ọrịa ara ure.

Ọkà mmụta sayensị na ugbu a na-arụ ọrụ n'ụzọ na-eji mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa na azuokokoosisi-cell teknụzụ iji ghọta zuru ezu na-akpatara ndị dị iche iche nke mgbaka na, n'ikpeazụ, ịzụlite ọgwụ ọjọọ nwere ike ịkụda ọnwụ nke ezi ikike iche na-emetụta ọnọdụ.

Ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị adọ aka ná ntị na a ọchịchọ-anọgide na-okwu mgbaru ọsọ ma na aka na e nwere ọtụtụ ihe na-arụ ọrụ nke ka mkpa ka e mee.

Gịnị bụ nsogbu?
A key problem for those trying to tackle dementia is a lack of resources. There have been major investments in heart disease and cancer research in recent years and these have helped bring down death rates.

But that has not happened with dementia, said Matthew Norton, head of policy for Alzheimer’s Research UK. “Just look at the figures,"Ka o kwuru.

“Total spend in the UKfrom charities and the governmenton dementia in 2013 was £73.8m. N'ụzọ dị iche na, for cancer, that figure was £503m.” This underfunding means reduced manpower, say campaigners. There are some 3,600 dementia researchers working in the UK –about 19,000 fewer than those working on cancer, even though dementia costs the UK economy more. Ya mere, prospects of finding treatments to slow or halt the loss of faculties associated with dementia will be limited, say researchers.

Heart attack, conceptual computer artwork
Foto: PASIEKA/SPL/Getty Images/Brand X

HEART DISEASE

Ebee ka anyị nọ?
Over the past 50 afọ, there has been an impressive improvement in mortality rates from cardiovascular disease in Britain. This point was precisely summed up by Peter Weissberg, medical director of the British Heart Foundation. “The foundation was established in 1961, when heart disease was ravaging the country. It caused nearly half of all deaths in the UK in that year.”

With hindsight, it is not hard to see why. Smoking levels were four times higher than today, while eating foods high in saturated fatswhole milk, butter and red meatwas the norm.

taa, those foods have been replaced by lower-fat options, vegetable oils, skimmed milk and poultry. We have medicines to reduce blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and it is possible to open blocked or narrowed arteries without major surgery.

Gịnị now?
Devising drugs to treat damaged hearts suffers from a key problem: they are difficult to test. “We cannot keep cutting patients open to remove heart-tissue samples. That is just not practical or ethical,” said Chris Denning of Nottingham University.

A solution for scientists in recent years has been to turn to the use of stem cells. At Nottingham University researchers have taken cells from patients’ skin and bathed them in nutrients in order to transform them into stem cells, a type of cell that can be turned into any tissue. These cells are then developed into heart cells, which are kept in Petri dishes for testing purposes.

“That means they are ideal for trying new drugs on. It is an incredibly important development,” added Denning.

Other scientists believe that it may be possible to use stem cells to directly repair, damaged hearts in the near future.

Gịnị bụ nsogbu?
Although medical procedures continue to improve prospects for saving the lives of those who suffer from cardiovascular disease, there are a host of epidemiological issues that threaten to offset these benefits.

Ọmụmaatụ, the rate of smoking declined sharply between 1972 na 1994 but the fall-off has since slowed down. And the prevalence of heavy drinking has not changed substantially since the 1970s. Njọ, childhood obesity has been increasing in both boys and girls since the mid-1980s, while adult obesity rates are also continuing to rise – as is the incidence of diabetes in the UK. All these factors increase the risk that heart disease mortality rates could rise again in the near future.

Weissberg has warned that these factors “threaten to derail the decreasing trends in heart disease and death rates that we are now experiencing”.

Antibodies attacking flu virus, artwork
Foto: SCIEPRO/Getty Images/Brand X

INFECTIOUS DISEASE

Ebee ka anyị nọ?
Defeating the scourge of infectious disease in the western world is generally attributed to the development of vaccine programmes and antibiotics, although improved sanitation and health education have also been key factors.

“In fact, death rates from tuberculosis, a pernicious killer, had begun to drop by the mid-19th century,” said Carsten Timmermann of Manchester University. “In 1838, there were around 4,000 deaths per million as a result of TB, but this had dropped to around 1,000 site 1900. Vaccines and antibiotics had nothing to do with that. N'ezie, it is not clear why the decline occurred at all. But it is also evident that programmes such as the BCG vaccine project had really stopped tuberculosis being a serious killer by the middle of the 20th century.”

Gịnị now?
In the west, most infectious diseases are now kept at bay. Otú ọ dị, the balance is an uneasy one. “In the 1960s, a US surgeon-general was alleged to have claimed that infectious diseases had been completely defeated,” said Jeremy Farrar, who is head of the UK Wellcome Trust.

“The story may be apocryphal but it certainly sums up attitudes at the time. mgbe ahụ, a couple of decades later, we had the arrival of HIV in the west and a very clear lesson about the ever-present danger of infectious diseases, nke can spread very quickly from other parts of the world.”

Na mgbakwunye, the rise of antibiotic resistancea result, in part, of overusehas led to growing fears that one of the west’s key defences against infectious disease may be lost in the near future, unless pharmaceutical companies speed up the development of new versions.

Gịnị bụ nsogbu?
In an increasingly connected world, it’s more and more difficult to contain infectious diseases. Changes in weather patterns and increased migrations from areas affected by rising sea levels or spreading deserts will also intensify the risk of new diseases or new strains of existing conditions arriving in the west.

“In developing nations, we have replaced the problems of infectious disease with health issues such as diabetes and obesity,” said Farrar. “But in developing nations, they still have major problems with infectious diseasesmalaria, TB and HIV, ọmụmaatụ – but are also being affected by obesity and diabetes. Countries such as theseVietnam is a good exampleneed considerable help from global agencies such as the World Health Organisation. Otú ọ dị, these agencies are not getting the support they need from the west any more.”

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